World Development in the Light of Gunder Frank’s Theory

Andre Gunder Frank wrote Development of Under-developmentwhich was a milestone in the study of sociology and world economy. He argues that all nation-states are bound to progress and develop and those nations which do not develop are handicapped due to outside factors which stunt their process of development. So it is established that all nations have the potential to develop under the right circumstances. How can the imperialist philosophy give way to an environment of mutual acceptance, peace, love and harmony? We will try to find an answer to this question in this article. Acceptance comes with empathy, and empathy comes from communication and understanding. And when inter-cultural communication takes place, we need translators to provide translation services. Gunder Frank and dependentistas were opposed by the dualists who thought that development of a nation solely depends on its own abilities. They thought that a nation’s underdevelopment might be due to lack of progress, communication or traditional feudal practices.  According to them it was observed in the later developing societies, that the industrial zone co-existed with a traditionally backward society. But dependentistas thought that these industrial zones were parasitical and hindering the development of the backward zones. Whichever is the case, the developed nations can step forward and play their role in creating a globally developed world. For this purpose we need lots of German translators, Portuguese translators, Arabic translators, Vietnamese translators, Korean translators, Hindi and Urdu translators. As things are, most of the research in the present world is done by western countries in the field of economics, international politics, technology and literature. By making it available for people of the under-developed countries, we can take a step forward towards globally modernizing the world. Translating this knowledge in other languages can help in transferring all this research to the impoverished societies.

One may ask, what is the need of a globally modernized world? Or why is world development necessary?  Our world has become a global village and what happens in one part of the world affects people living in other parts of the world too. Nations cannot live in isolation nor can they hope to benefit by thriving on the resources of other countries for a long time. Even the imperialist powers of the world have come to realize that depriving the under-developed countries from their right to develop will prove to be a hindrance in their own development. According to Gunder, countries might be undeveloped but no country is under-developed. A small example will clarify this point. There are oil and gas reserves which have been found in many African under-developed countries like Nigeria, Chad, Sudan, Tunisia, Egypt etc. These resources were not being utilized until the foreign investors came and built the infrastructure required to extract these resources. And the developed countries are benefiting from these resources too, as they are the main export partners of the African countries. This petroleum industry in Africa has created job opportunities for the local people and its a forward step in World development. Not to mention the need for French translation, Spanish translation and Portuguese translation service companies. The African oil producing countries are a gold mine for translators.

Andre Gunder Frank also gives some solutions to the Third World countries to pace up with the developed nations. He thinks that there should be a positive change in the relationships of the third world countries with the imperialist powers. He also thinks that an internal change is necessary to loosen the hold of elites on the resources of the impoverished countries. A transformation in the  ruling class of these countries is vital for their progress.

Limit The Length Of Sentences For Better Comprehension

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Over the past three decades, a great amount of research has been conducted by Washington D.C. translation services workers, interpreters and professors of linguistics to uncover strategies that make writing more readable and oral presentations more understandable.  Among the topics researched most heavily are those that involve clarity and conciseness.  The major implications drawn from the research typically suggested that sentences should be short and writers should use words that are familiar to the target audience.   By following this advice, the content will be more easily understood by non-native speakers and it will also be easier to translate into foreign languages.  In the next few blog entries, St. Louis Spanish translation workers will focus on these recommendations that include limiting the length of sentences, making use of terminology that is widely known, cutting out unnecessary terms and incorporating action into sentences.

Restricting the Length of Sentences

Recently French translators in Baltimore discussed translation and evaluating sentence efficiency.  In their presentation they indicated that while translating they always try to evaluate sentences to determine if they can convey the same thought in the least amount of words possible.  Consider these two sentences:

  1. The power cord connected to the new computer isn’t long enough to reach the outlet.
  2. The new computer’s power cord is too short to reach the outlet.

Both sentences are short.  The first sentence contains 16 words and the second sentence contains 13 words. However, the second sentence conveys the same meaning with 3 fewer words.  Only 13 words are needed to communicate the information to the reader.

Examine the following sentence:

The magazine writers reported that the 2 door Honda Accord sedan provided a smooth ride.

This sentence contains 15 words, but can the same idea be conveyed using fewer words?

  • The 2-door Honda Accord offered a smooth ride to the magazine writers.
  • The 2-door Accord offered a smooth ride

While there are probably better ways to rewrite the original sentence, the two alternatives contain fewer words and provided the same information.  The alternatives were far better in communicating the thought.

long-sentence

So when is a sentence too long?

Unfortunately, there is no simple answer to this question.  The answer really depends on how well the sentence is composed, received and understood by the intended audience.

Planning For Professional Translating, Writing and Speaking

Given that professional translating, writing and speaking focus on an audience, a purpose, and details, you should begin with one of the three. John Preston, a noted Washington D.C. French translator suggests that you start with your audience for four reasons:
1. Shared communication depends upon a mutual opinion of the world, and you generally need to seek strategies to adapt your communication to cater to readers and listeners (in the work environment, you are expected to provide a clear understanding). As any good Dallas Translator will tell you, you’ll encounter unwritten, yet nevertheless important, cultural and organizational requirements relating to your target audience you need to understand and connect with as you communicate, whether in writing or orally.
2. Keeping readers or listeners in consideration enables you to stay grounded in reality, concentrated on why they are reading or listening to your business presentation and on how and where the target audience will make use of the document or receive the presentation. In the work environment, the audience is rarely completely attentive and sitting in comfortable chairs in a well-lit office. In the same way, listeners are not always in a quiet, peaceful atmosphere. As a Spanish translator in Baltimore, there are moments when must alter your communication to account for different circumstances. While you can’t usually foresee the circumstances, you need to plan for these conditions.
3 . Figuring out your target audience, its requirements, and the atmosphere or conditions in which they are going to examine your report or hear your speech assists you in deciding on subject matter, objective, organization, media, and type of delivery. What media and delivery method are ideally suited for presenting your findings? What format does the target audience favor? Will you have to develop for print or broadcast? Will the message be put on a CD or on the Web in HTML or as a PDF file? The answers should rest on your audience. It is their benefit, not yours, that you need to take into account.
4. Your presentation may compliment a larger system or context of information in which other audiences and purposes are essential and should be identified. Determining all the foreseeable likely audiences will support you in discovering all prerequisites of the interaction.

PART II: EXTEMPORANEOUS REPORTS

Here are a few more ideas from translators to help you make the most of your presentation.

Use Natural Body Movements and Posture

If you move and gesture as you normally would in a conversation, your audience will be more relaxed. As numerous providers of German translation in Chicago report, nothing seems more pretentious than a speaker  who works through a series of rehearsed moves and artificial gestures. Also, maintain good posture. Don’t sway, slump, or fidget.

Speak with Confidence, Conviction, and Authority

Show your audience that you believe in what you say. Be enthusiastic and sincere. Avoid qualifiers (“I suppose,” ‘Tm not sure,” “but … ,””maybe”). Also, clean up verbal tics (“er,” “ah,” “uuh,” “mmm,” “OK,” “you know”), which do a poor job of filling in the blank spaces between statements. If you seem to be apologizing for your existence, you won’t be impressive. Speaking with authority, however, is not the same as speaking like an authoritarian.

Moderate Your Voice Volume, Tone, Pronunciation, and Speed

When using a microphone, people often speak too loudly. Without a microphone, they may speak too softly. That why one Chinese translator in Baltimore says that you you should make certain that you can be heard clearly without shattering people’s eardrums. When in doubt, ask your audience about the sound and speed of your delivery after a few sentences. Your tone should be confident, sincere, friendly, and conversational.

Because nervousness can cause too-rapid speech and unclear or slurred pronunciation, pay close attention to your pace and pronunciation. Usually, the rate you feel is a bit slow will be j~st about right for your audience.

Maintain Eye Contact

According to Denver translation workers, eye contact is vital in relating to your audience. Look directly into your listeners’ eyes to hold their interest. With a small audience, your eye contact is one of your best connectors. As you speak, establish eye contact with as many members of your audience as possible. With a large group, maintain eye contact with those in the first rows.

Read Audience Feedback

Addressing a live audience gives you the advantage of receiving immediate feedback on your delivery. Assess your audience’s responses continually and make adjustments as needed. If, for example, you are laboring through a long list of facts, figures, examples, or statistical data, and you notice that people are dozing or moving restlessly, you might summarize the point you’re making.

Likewise, if frowns, raised eyebrows, or questioning looks indicate confusion, skepticism, or indignation, you can backtrack with a specific example or explanation. By tuning in to your audience’s reactions, you can avoid leaving them confused, hostile, or simply bored.

Translating in the Global Community of the 21st Century: Currency, Time, Dates, Measurements, and Places

Although all of these elements are critically important in communication, they vary from country to country—and sometimes within a country—and thus can cause misunderstanding and confusion.

Dates are another source of confusion.    Because the conventions for the sequence of the day, the month, and the year differ greatly from country to country, the certified Chicago Translation worker should write them out in long form.   In the United States, the date is typically written as month, day, and year (December 5, 2012); but in most of the rest of the world, dates are written as day, month, and year (5 December 2012).  Clearly a date written as 5/12/2012 might mean December 5 in one country or May 12 in another country.  In Japan, the year appears first, followed by the month and day (2012 December 5 or 12/12/5).  Because the document may be intended for readers of multiple nationalities, the date written out in full, whatever the sequence,will prevent errors in understanding that might cause disastrous results.

Currency symbols and names can cause great confusion, and not just in understanding rates and values.  For example, currency symbols may appear before or after the sum.  In the US, Great Britain, and Europe, the symbols precede the number, as follows: $100 (US dollars), £100 (British pounds), and €100 (European Common Market Euros).  The  pre-Euro currencies of France and Germany, however, have the symbols placed after the number, as follows:  100 F (French francs) and 100 DM (deutsche marks).

Another problem for some Baltimore Translation workers arises from different kinds of currencies with the same name.  In such a case the kind of currency must be identified, unless the context guarantees clarity.  For example, dollars range from American ($100 US or USD) to Hong Kong ($100 HK or HKD) to Zimbabwe ($100 ZWD), along with many other national dollars.

Measures are expressed mainly in one of two major standards:  the metric and the imperial.  Around the world almost every country except the United States has adopted the metric system.  Even the US, however, is using the metric system more and more in government and business contexts.  Thus documents may need to express measures in both forms to guarantee accuracy of understanding, and the certified translator may need to insert the equivalent measure.  Here are examples:

  •              An average adult Gekho is approximately 14 inches (36 cm) long.
  •             The cylinder weighs nine pounds (4 Kilograms)
  •             The storage capacity of the tank is approximately 378 liters (approximately 100 US gallons.)

Also keep in mind that clothing and shoe sizes follow no universal sizes.

Writing and Translating Reports For International Business Managers

Reports present ideas and facts to international managers who use them to make informed decisions. The short report’s purpose is to communicate concisely. Depending on the subject, your client’s needs, and your client’s company’s policy, you might record your data in memo form, letter form, or on a prepared form.

Letter reports are often translated by Tampa Translation professional to communicate information to people outside the client’s organization. They therefore follow a standard letter format, with the addition of a subject line and headings as needed.

Memorandum reports, the most common form of in-house communication, follow a fixed format. Generally, when consulting with clients and translating these reports a Baltimore Translation worker will recommend the liberal use of headings and itemized lists to guide readers through the report.

Unlike most reports, justification reports, written to suggest changes in policy or procedures, are typically initiated by the writer rather than authorized or requested by someone else. As described n the previous blog entry by a translator with The Marketing Analysts Translation Company, justification reports list recommendations, benefits, and conclusions before providing discussion, details, and the means used to arrive at the conclusions.

Progress reports are informational reports that help supervisors keep track of activities, problems, and progress on various projects. Whereas progress reports summarize project accomplishments, periodic reports summarize daily, weekly, or monthly work routines.

Miscellaneous reports follow no specific conventions, since their data are so variable that no conventions can serve as adequate guidelines. Organize the information in such reports to best answer the questions readers are likely to ask.

Writing And Translating The Recommendation Letter

Instead of simply offering facts and ideas, the recommendation report translates data, makes conclusions, and presents recommendations. The recommendation listed below offers a report in the form of a letter. The author of the translated letter, a Dallas Translation Services worker, uses technical financial language since he understands that the American reader will understand the terminology. Using a direct plan, the report commences with a short introductory paragraph that quickly addresses the topic and purpose. After the introduction, the letter provides a recommendation, an overview, and the subject areas included in the analysis. Observe that the tone of the English to French Translator is format befitting the relationship between investment counselor and client. Although he recommends buying the stock, he remains impartial, letting the facts prove his point.

 

First American Financial Advisers
2025 Addison Circle Drive
Addison, Texas 75001

August 27, 2012

 

Mr. Howard Johnson
2992 North Halstead Way
Washington, DC 20001
Dear Mr. Johnson:

SUBJECT: THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF A COMMON STOCK PURCHASE IN ExxonMobil

We are pleased to submit the following report you requested on the feasibility of a common stock investment in ExxonMobil.

Recommendation

ExxonMobil liquidity ratio (.94), profit margin (10.37), and debt ratio (53.4%) are sound, thereby making ExxonMobil’s stock a good investment decision.  ExxonMobil is one of the largest publicly traded companies by market capitalization in the world and is the largest company in the world by revenue.

The  information that the Denver Translation company has gathered from your broker suggests that you invest a minimum of $10,000 in ExxonMobil ‘s common stock. ExxonMobil  is a leader in all aspects of petroleum exploration to refining industry and marketing; your investment therefore would not only be a low risk, but it would also provide an excellent return for your retirement.

Overview of ExxonMobil

ExxonMobil is a direct descendant of John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company.  ExxonMobil was created by the mergers of Mobile and Exxon in 1999 and is the largest of the six oil supermajors.  ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation.

Types of Common Stock

Publicly traded as XOM on the NYSE, ExxonMobil is currently priced at $88.05 per share.

In sum, ExxonMobil is a sound investment that would add strength and diversity to your portfolio. Should you wish to invest in ExxonMobil’s stock, please call me at your convenience?

Sincerely,

 

Certified Financial Planner

Planning Your Global Marketing Research Project: What To Do Before You Get Started

Planning is the key developing useful reports for global managers. These guidelines were prepared by a French translator in Baltimore who focuses on international research and will help assist other translators in planning and focusing their research studies.

Choice of Topic

In most cases a certified translator will be asked to assist another researcher in locating, gathering and translating information about a specific business issue. There are times when a client may also come to you directly with a series of questions and asked you to conduct web and literature searches that will help answer the questions.  If the data that you gather is good and the research report is well written and documented, you be asked to complete additional projects with greater responsibilities. Companies that operate on a global basis are full of research problems to solve, hypotheses to be formed and strategies to implement. This is why every language translator must ensure that their report makes a valuable contribution.

Focus of Topic

Before you start the project, you should meet with the client and narrow your scope so you can discuss purpose completely with the targeted readers. To achieve a clear direction, always phrase your topic as a question. Assume, for instance, that you are provide Portuguese Translation in Houston and have been tasked to research certain needs of local businesses in Rwanda. You have to focus on a specific need you can research thoroughly. Let’s say you have a client which is a large petroleum company and interested in improving their public relations with the local community and area businesses. After some hard thinking, you decide on this question: How can XYZ Company improve their reputation and goodwill among the local people of Rwanda? Your audience will be your client.

Working Bibliography

When you have selected and narrowed your topic, be sure you can find adequate resources online, in your library, or various trade associations. Do your bibliography early to avoid choosing a subject and an approach only to learn later that not enough sources are available. You might in fact choose and focus your topic on the basis of a preliminary search for primary and secondary sources.

Conduct a quick search of the Internet, reference guides and government publications. Using a separate note card for each work, record the bibliographic information. Many internet sites and books will contain bibliographies that lead you to additional sources. With a current topic, such as alternative energy projects in developing countries, you might expect to find most of your information in recent magazine, journal, and newspaper articles. Your bibliography, of course, will grow as you read. Assess possible interview sources and include probable interviews in your working bibliography.

Formatting Reports For Translation Workers

When formatting your client’s reports and other documents for overseas markets, a translation worker should always place extra emphasis on good formatting.  This blog entry offers suggestions from several experienced translation workers with The Marketing Analysts Translation Services Company.  As you read through these, keep in mind that format requirements vary from organization to organization. In the absence of specific client requests, however, you will find the following advice broadly applicable.

High-Quality Paper

Print your final draft on 8 l/2-by-ll inch plain, white paper. Use heavy bond paper (20 lb. or higher) with a high fiber content (25 percent minimum).

Highlighting

Highlighting emphasizes key points and adds to a document’s attractiveness. Typical highlighting techniques include boldface, italics or underlining, and colored headings. Notice how these techniques are used on this website and adapt those you can.   Some Portland Translation services warn that translators should never overuse highlighting because it can negate its effect. For instance, excessive underlining is distracting. And don’t use too many different highlighting techniques on one page. Doing so causes confusion and clutter. Finally, be consistent in your use of one technique. For instance, if you begin using boldface for headings (or a certain level of heading), don’t switch to another technique. Or if you’re using italics for key terms, don’t switch to boldface. These switches confuse readers.

Spacing

White space created by margins, spacing, and indention is vital to the appearance and readability of any document. New York City Italian Translation workers often suggest that translators leave the following margins on each page: top margin, l l/4 inches; bottom, l inch; left, l l/2 inches; right, l inch. The larger left margin leaves space for binding the report. Make your report easy to scan by double spacing within and between paragraphs.

Indent the first line of all paragraphs five spaces from the left margin. Be sure no illustrations extend beyond the inside limits of your margins. As a rule, avoid hyphenating a word at the end of a line; if you must hyphenate, check your dictionary for the correct place to break the word. White space also isolates and emphasizes. A text with ample white space is pleasing to the eye and easy to read. A text with small margins and without adequate white space between paragraphs, titles, and headings looks cramped and difficult.

Line Length

Excessively long lines cause eye strain; short lines cause the eye to jump back and forth. If your margins are set up as discussed above, you will have a 60-character line for larger-print typewriters (known as pica or l 0-pitch) or a 72-character line for the smaller-print typewriters (known as elite or 12-pitch). Word processing equipment usually follows these conventions, even allowing a choice of print sizes. Check the user’s manual. References to characters per inch, or cpi, are the same as pitch; l 0 cpi is l 0-pitch and so on.

How Translators Can Make Use Of Diagrams, Photographs, Samples and Maps

Diagrams

Diagrams are sketches or drawings of the parts of an item or the steps in a process.  While there are numerous types of diagrams, a few that Baltimore Translation Services workers use on a regular basis include the following:

  • Diagrams of Mechanical Parts. A mechanism description should be accompanied by diagrams that show its parts and illustrate its operating principle.
  • Exploded Diagrams. Exploded diagrams show how parts of an item are assembled. They often appear in repair or maintenance manuals, or in brochures attached to sales letters showing why or how a product is better than another.
  • Diagrams of Procedures. Diagrams are especially useful for clarifying instructions by illustrating certain steps.

Photographs

Photographs provide an accurate overall view, but they can sometimes be too “busy.” By showing all details as more or less equal, a photograph sometimes fails to emphasize important areas.

Miami Translation Services recommend the use of photographs that are distinct, well focused, and uncluttered. For a complex mechanism, you probably should rely on diagrams instead, unless you intend simply to show an overall view, as is often done in sales brochures.  Lend a sense of scale by including a person or a familiar object in your photo.

Samples

Sometimes, Philadelphia Translation companies produce reports and sales letters that discusses certain materials, such as clothing fabrics, types of paper, or paint colors, you might include actual samples. The same holds true if you’re discussing new business forms, contracts, brochures. or such. For items like fabrics and paints, glue or paste a small sample – titled and numbered – to your report page.

Maps

Maps are excellent for illustrating areas of growth, population densities, natural resources, flight or transportation routes.