Realism and its International Application…Visualizing The Doctrine In Today’s World

Realism was a philosophy which was not related to political or international affairs in the past until recently. The doctrine implies that every individual is ‘primarily selfish and power seeking.’ If applied to nations rather than individuals, it would establish that all nations aim to seek power and pursue their own national interests with little consideration for the interest of other nations of the world. Moreover, the desire to establish supremacy over other countries of the world has been as old as the formation of societies. But viewing it all in the current perspective, one wonders if today’s world can afford to follow the doctrine of realism.

We definitely need a world where people can live together in harmony and peace. Differences in culture must not be taken any further than that, as racism can breed contempt and hatred for which we have enough in today’s world. Instead of taking the resources of other countries, mutual collaboration between countries on an international level can be beneficial in a productive way. Bilateral ties and trade partnerships can strengthen economies. One Translation company, The Marketing Analysts Translation Services is playing a major role in bridging cultural gaps while providing effective interpretation services for international conventions and seminars.

Realism, if not taken to an extreme, can definitely become a productive force. But when nations  establish themselves as stronger entities without any consideration for the rights of the weaker nations, that is when there is a serious threat to peace and stability in the world. Countries must realize that a third world war would be a serious threat to humanity. Therefore we as humans, both individually and collectively, should learn to respect our cultural differences. The role played by translation services is commendable in bringing people from different cultures together on various forums.

A Spanish translator working for the The Marketing Analysts Translation Service Company told that he had served the company on various international forums. He viewed his job as a service to humanity because the prime purpose of an interpreter, according to him, is to make people understand each other. Misunderstandings arise when the concerned parties are unable to communicate with each other. Difference in linguistic backgrounds is the primary reason of a communication barrier.

Social media is also playing a positive role in bringing people of different ethnic backgrounds closer to each other. What the world needs today is harmony and progression that is for everyone and not for a chosen few.

A Peek into the History of Translation Services

Chaucer-First-Translations

Geoffrey Chaucer

The unimaginable speedy trend of technology diffused the borders between different states and gradually improved the level of interactional communication between people. This caused people to become more indulged and interested regarding others’ cultures. One of the most popular ways of being familiarized to the other cultures was through their literature.

The concept of translators in literature dates back to the times between first and third centuries when the dispersed Jews in Alexandria who had forgotten their ancestral language, needed to translate their original holy scriptures into Greek. Likewise, in Asia due to the spread of Buddhism, large-scale translation efforts were consistently being made.

The first initial translations in English were made by Geoffery Chaucer in the 14th century. He made Italian translations,French translations and Latin translations. Meanwhile, in the Renaissance period of Italy, the works of Plato, Erasmus, Aristotle and Jesus were also translated. This caused uproar in the readers who demanded accuracy of the translations. They asserted that the strength of the religious and philosophical beliefs expressed in these works depended on the exact words of their authors.

Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, the idea of translation was more like that of adaptation. The main aim of the translators and translation services was that of ease of reading. What they considered to be monotonous and boring or found something in the text that they did not understand, they simply omitted it. The advent of 19th century brought new standards for accuracy and style in the translation procedures, such that, as J. M. Cohen puts it, the rule for translation became ‘the text, the entire text, and nothing else but the text’.

Today, the modern translation requires text to be understood by readers while simultaneously maintaining the sanctity and expression of the original text. This is especially done for classic literatures like that of Bible, or works of William Shakespeare.

The translation of religious texts has played a significant role in history. The first translations in this context were made in the Old Testament which was translated into Greek by the Jews of that time as mentioned before. Considered one of the greatest translations of religious text in history is that of Saint Jerome, who rendered Bible text into Latin translation. Gradually this period saw the translation of Bible into other local European languages as well.

The services of these translators spread the valuable messages of the ancient civilizations to the entire world with the passage of time. Sharing their knowledge through means of translation had a meaningful impact on how different concepts in our world are understood and perceived today. These translation efforts maintained that intellect and creativity should know no boundaries and are meant to be enjoyed, appreciated and analyzed by readers present all over the world.

References

www.wikipedia.org

www.onlinetercumanlik.com

Investing In The Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast or Cote d’ivoire is a West African country located between Ghana and Liberia. Between the 1960s and 1970s, the country held a strong position economically through its cocoa and coffee production. However, the economic crisis encountered by the country in the 1980s led it to a period of social and political unrest. Today, the Ivorian economy stands as mainly marketing-based and depending greatly on its agriculture sector.

On the other hand, Ivory Coast vigorously encourages foreign investment. France is seen to be the most significant foreign investor here. Since the year 2006, the country’s oil and gas production has also become important for its economy as well as its investment sector. Various private companies are engaged in oil exploration in the offshore of Ivory Coast. Ivory Coast is known more of as an oil refining country rather than an oil producing country. Its offshore oil fields are not as rich as those of Nigeria, but still it holds a modestly challenging place in the global oil industry.

Investment opportunities in Ivory Coast are abundant and based on capitalism where private units are actively inspired to invest. Foreign investment accounts for almost 40% of total capita income of the Ivoirian firms.

The greatest opportunity in investing is seen in the real estate of Ivory Coast. With the introduction of stability in the country, the requirement for property has greatly increased. There is however, a wide gap between the supply and demand which is becoming progressively apparent with the passing days. To counteract this problem, the Ministry of Construction and Urbanism has begun an operation to provide land in large urban areas. For this reason, this area is a healthy chance for foreign investors.As opportunities for investment in Ivory Coast are ample, there is also an important place for translation service companies in the country. Majority of the Ivorian people speak French because of which mainly the investment sector sees France as a significant investor. French Translation services will help the other foreign investors to actively engage in investment activities in the country.

Considering the vigorous encouragement of foreign investment in Ivory Coast, translation services firms enjoy and occupy a special place in the country as a chance to further boost the foreign investment system here. Translators can play a huge and significant role in the communication between the foreign investors and the local people and opportunities for investment can be furthered for the betterment of Ivory Coast in the long run.

Africa, Worth Investing But With Proper Strategy

invest-africaAfrica is a goldmine for foreign investors and there are massive growth opportunities for companies in the region. The whole continent needs development projects to be initiated, infra-structure to be built and training programs to be organized for more skilled labors. But if compared with other countries, Africa’s share of manufactured goods in the global markets is just an 11% compared to a 31% for east Asia, which is quite low. According to Carlos Lopes, the executive secretary of the United Nation Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), this global share of manufactured goods from Africa can be increased up to a 20% of GDP. With its developing economy, Africa has the room for any number of foreign investors. In the past few years, after the recent oil discoveries in many African countries, a hundred thousand jobs have been created in the region. The boom in industrial zone has also raised the demand for French translators, Portuguese translators and Chinese translators. 

It is not easy to set up a new business anywhere. But to do so in a foreign environment is even more difficult. Foreign investors often show haste in setting up their companies in Africa which results in disaster and a huge financial setback. They witness other companies thriving in the region and presume that due to its development needs, any new business will flourish in Africa. But this is not true. A few factors must be kept in mind before an investor decides about investing in Africa. You must begin by contacting a qualified translation agency which would help you bridge the language barriers you are going to face in a new country. Several good translation companies are doing a remarkable job in negotiable rates. Houston translation service company and New York translation services company are among those few reputable translation firms.

Tips on how to make your business flourish in Africa

When you enter a new market, you must know that the tips and strategies which you followed to establish your company in your own country, could not prove to be useful in a foreign atmosphere, with a few exceptions. African people work with those whom they can trust and the key to run a successful enterprise in the region is to develop business relationships with proper planning. The business community in Africa is of the view that conducting business in Africa might prove to be an arduous task. For good business relationships in the African community, collaboration with local partners is necessary. Your local partners would know the “ins and outs” of running a company in their own country and would likely have the proper connections which you would need as a new investor in the market. Here again comes the necessity of hiring the services of a good translation company which would arrange translators for you according to your need. Usually French, Arabic, Portuguese and English are the official languages in African countries. The translation company you would hire will arrange the translators/interpreters according to your needs.

Inaccurate data is also another factor which leads to the failure of a business. It is not prudent to rely on others to collect data for you or to depend on figures available on the internet. Before initiating anything, you must survey the country yourself and the potential it has, for satisfactory growth of a company. It may feel costly to run an initial market research, but it is going to save a lot of trouble and will minimize the percentage of risk.

It is also very important to set up a website of your company on the internet with key features of the company mentioned. The site should also mention the names and contact numbers of the executives of the company. Business cards can go a long way in establishing a relationship of trust and good rapport with the local community. The top officials of the company should always be available for face to face interactions. All channels for communication should be used, including phone, internet, fax and postal services. You must understand that people like to do business dealings with those, whom they can trust and rely upon. All communication should be done with a consideration for the local customs and traditions of the public. Constant communication would be fruitful only if both parties would be able to understand each other. To hire translators should be among your top priorities when setting up business. Any investment should be done with the intention of improving the situation of the local African man and to create job opportunities for him, in order to keep the interest of the local community intact in your company.

Why Personal Hygiene And Physical Appearance Are Important To Translation Workers

Nowadays business etiquette is considered an essential business skill. Nobody would like to work with people who are rude or can drive away customers or investors because of poor etiquette. Moreover, as the professionals from a French Translation Services company add, apart from behavior, personal appearance can also be considered a part of business etiquette and nonverbal communication because your style of dress and whether it matches the place you work sends information to your managers, colleagues and customers. 

 The workers from Milwaukee Translations Services advise us that when we are not sure what to put on for work,  to keep to the rule that the simpler the better. Moreover, when dressed modestly, the message we are sending is that we want to earn reputation for our skills and expertise, not for the way we look.  Translators at a Chinese translation company also advise us to choose well-tailored clothing (not necessarily very expensive but appropriate for business) that fits well. We should also make sure that no buttons are missing and that all zippers and hemlines are in good repair. Of course, no need to say, that grooming is as important as clothing – your attire should be clean and carefully pressed.

Personal hygiene is also very important – shampoo frequently and make sure that you visit your hairstylist regularly, keep your hands neatly manicured, use mouthwash and deodorant, but avoid strong scents – your colleagues may dislike the scent or even be allergic to it.

And last, but not least – try to avoid being negative. Even if you spend as much time with your colleagues as with your family and friends or even more, after all they are not your family and friends.  At the workplace you should always have in mind that negative attitude can make your office mates miserable and unproductive. Moreover, everyone has his or her personal problems, but after all your colleagues go to work to earn their living as you yourself do, and no matter how close you feel them, try to avoid negative attitude and demeanor and  to contribute as much as possible to a positive, energetic work environment.

By Margarita Mihaylova

Group Dynamics – 1. Team Roles

Productive teams tend to establish guidelines for interaction that though often officially unstated become group norms – informal standards of behavior that members follow and that direct their actions. For example, in some teams it is perfectly acceptable to show up 10 or 15 minutes late for meetings, while other teams expect strict adherence to schedules. In this light, when referring to the interactions and processes that take place among the members of a team, organizational behavior experts often use the term ‘group dynamics’.

In the opinion of some professionals from a Certified transcript Translation  Service Agency, group dynamics are swayed by a number of factors: including the functions that the participants in the team serve, the current developmental stage of the group, its conflict resolving ability and its ability to overcome resistance to change.

Each member of a team usually plays a certain role that affects the outcome of the group activities. This role can generally be classified as either functional or dysfunctional.  Legal translation workers further clarify, that apart from this general division, the role a team member assumes can be further categorized as self-oriented, team-maintenance or task-facilitating.

Team members who take on self-serving functions usually put their own needs ahead of the needs of the team they belong to. Though usually highly skilled and experienced people, they often don’t perform as well as one might expect and in practice they often turn out to be less valuable than others in the group. Moreover, as a French translator adds, other team members may avoid interacting with them simply because they often are people with difficult personalities.

While members who take on self-oriented functions are generally considered dysfunctional, team-maintenance and task-facilitating roles are generally considered functional. Members who take on maintenance functions, for example, have a higher likelihood of making meaningful contributions and are mre likely to help reach agreement and cooperation. Those who take on task-oriented roles, are more likely to work towards and eventually to help the team reach its goals.

By Sarah Hudson

Tourism in the Post-Socialist Countries

One of the ways to classify tourism is in terms of its specifics, direction and quality of rendered services. In essence, tourism is the production of services by way of a specific combination of physical components required for the production of an intangible product. Here we may quote from what the workers at a French translation agency in Dallas, Texas say: “Tourism is a promise of the supply side to create a certain effect seen on the demand side as an expectation to meet specific physiological and spiritual needs. In this light we can say that tourism as a business depends largely on the aims it pursues and on the demands of its customers – the tourists it attracts. In this light, the translation services workers from the above agency also add that tourism can be classified as a business not only in terms of its quantity but to a large extent in terms of quality.

The reforms in the countries that passed through a period of transition to a market economy have undoubtedly left their stamp on tourism. The workers from a Houston Portuguese Translation Agency formulate the following areas, particularly affected by these reforms:

  • The impact of the structural reforms associated with the processes of privatization in the tourism business and change in ownership;
  • The changes in the legal environment for tourism;
  • The impact of structural reforms on the market characteristics of competition in tourism and its commercialization.

Although the structural reforms aimed to develop a natural market environment for tourism in these countries since they did not involve control as a natural part of their implementation, this led to accumulation of problems in the business environment. In many of the post-socialist countries the keywords that can characterize tourist business are: overbuilding and bad management approach, making benefits without regard to the overall effect of the functioning of tourism and its coordination with other sectors of the economy. This, naturally, have lowered the prices of holidays offered by these destinations. Of course, there are a lot of travel agencies in these countries that can claim to provide good results in line with the notion of attractive tourism products and we hope that their number will rapidly grow in the future.

Usefulness of Writing

When students leave the classroom and enter the professional workplace, they often feel overwhelmed by the demands on them to write. Even though they have written assignments, term papers, and essay exams for years, they find that the writing they excelled in at school is not the writing that wins them accolades on the job.

As one Spanish Translator suggested, school writing tends to focus on learning how to expand ideas and words and rewards fulfilling specific assignments. Thus clarity and accuracy may not be valued so highly as citing sources correctly or using what students term as “flowery” words. Furthermore, school writing usually prescribes a particular subject, scope, length, method, and essay format.  Audience considerations, beyond worrying  about what the professor likes or wants, are never in doubt, since students ought to know that their professors already know more about their topics than they do.  Although students may or may not be engaged in their writing projects but nevertheless believe that anything they produce is important, their  writing is actually useful only for securing a grade or determining a grade.   It cannot be reused or repurposed on most campuses without compromising academic integrity.   It does not provide content that the reader needs.  Instead, It shows what the writer knows—or disguises what he does not know.

In contrast, a French translator in New York believes says that professional writing comes with the job.  It has utility:  it serves uses that are indispensable in today’s world.   It may provide directions, preserve history, attempt a sale, lay out common understandings and procedures, or become a legal document.  It may be used many times and in many ways.  It is the property of the employer, who may alter it or use it as written.

Instead of focusing on what the writer wants to say, it requires the writer to assess the audience to determine who that audience—or multiple audiences—might be, what the audience needs and wants, how much that audience already knows about the subject, what level of language to use, and how to present the information in a format that is psychologically appealing.  And it requires logical organization, clear expression, accuracy in all details, and correct grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure.  As if this were not enough, the writing must also be so clear that every reader understands it in the same way and so concise that the readers do not waste their time plowing through unnecessary words or confusing sentences.   It must be clear, concise, direct—and easy to use.  It is determined not by the writer’s preferences but by the reader’s needs and expectations.

Online Translation Forums For Professional Translators

The communication environment becomes truly dynamic in forums, blogs and online chat sessions.  Forums are similar to blogs that you may need to be invited by a professional organization to joining. Many professional translation organizations have established such electronic forums on their own website or on sites such as LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter where members can discuss current issues and events. These types of discussion forums have seen a surge in subscribers and participants over the past decade.  In most cases, you subscribe by sending a message to the forum managers and indicate why you are interested in joining and participating in their forum.  As a member of a forum, you might discuss a problem, collaborate on projects, and share and write different news releases. Some large forums might even hold online meetings and training events.

There are a number of applications that can be purchased and are available free that allow organizations to create environments for discussions using chat sessions, instant messaging and other technologies.  Online discussions give everyone equal opportunity to talk and read each other’s comments.  In the field of French translation alone, there are a wide range of certified translation forums that provide professionals a writing environment for discussions on topics related to translation and interpretation.

Suggestions for effective e-mail messages apply to the messages you send to mailing lists and chat sessions, although chat sessions frequently have their own rules. Sometimes, it is a good idea to monitor the participation and postings for a week prior to engaging in conversation because you only want to post relevant comments. In many instances, new members will make post questions that have been answered numerous times.  Frequently, one or more members will become agitated and insist that you read the forum’s rules before commenting.  Generally, the rules contain a link to indexed material on commonly answered questions.

Making Ethical Decisions in Translation

Michelle Dawson, a French translator in Washington D.C., is employed by a United Nations office that functions to strengthen NGO’s through grants, training programs and a wide range of other programs.  As a translation worker, Michelle’s job is to evaluate grant proposals from various groups that seek funding from the United Nations.  The proposals that she receives and reviews are for new programs that are meant to promote global good.

While proposals are meant to contain factual information and be transparent, sometimes the writers see proposals as a marketing tool that can convey exaggerated promises, silenced risks and huge rewards. As a result, some proposals are almost entirely based on fabricated research results.  One inherent problem becomes obvious when proposals are written to generate funding for additional research and additional funding is recommended in previous research results. Generally speaking, the more successful the previous research has been, the more likely that large donations and grants will be awarded for additional research.

Because Dawson is a noted social scientist and professional translator, she has strong knowledge in conducting research, applying statistics correctly, stating realistic objectives and writing honest and ethical recommendations.  As a translation service provider and research analyst, her job is to evaluate the merit of each proposal.  Her current project involves reviewing and translating the proposals for a project that has a goal of bringing clean drinking water to people in Africa’s most polluted nations.  The first proposal that she reviews and translates from French to English is from a prominent United Nations ambassador and a professor at a Nigerian university.  The ambassador wants to implement a portable water filtration system that he had previously been awarded money to develop.  While independent research from world renowned testing laboratories confirm that his filtration system is completely ineffective, the ambassador attempts to mislead reviewers by including contrived charts from ambiguous and suspicious tests and making unfounded claims.

While reviewing the ambassador’s proposal, Dawson notices that the details contained in the proposal don’t match the findings that findings that he had recorded in the field.  In fact, the ambassador has skewed the data to make his water filtration system look successful.  Upon further review of the ambassador’s records, Dawson determines that the ambassador has underlined findings that make his invention look wonderful and has crossed out findings that detail huge and potentially dangerous flaws.

Dawson must now make an ethical decision in translation and decide if she should confront the ambassador, mention something to her superiors or simply overlook her findings.  By announcing her findings, she could be viewed as a whistle blower and face acts of retribution from everyone in her office.  She might even be forced to quit her job or worse.  Based on the two ethical frameworks that we discussed previously, what would you do?