Formatting Your Translated Presentation To The Right Audience

As you sit down with your client and revisit the target audience definition and the report objectives, you should also analyze how the intended audience will expect the presentation to be organized.  There are a number of strategies for structuring a presentation or report.  Some of the more widely used approaches by Indianapolis translation companies include the chronological approach, cause and effect, and the scientific approach which makes us of induction, deduction, and comparison.  In addition, for specific types of documents (application letters, sets of instructions, proposals, and oral briefings and presentations), there might be an accepted format style that is already familiar to the audience.

While a generic format might seem to fit your project, keep in mind that a generic format will rarely meet all of your needs.  Since the objectives and goals of each project are different, you will likely need to allow for some flexibility and creative thinking.  As an illustration, consider a standard installation manual that provides sections on the following:

  1. An overview of the installation procedure
  2. A list of all tools and materials that will be required
  3. A  chronological list of the steps involved

Now consider a talk to a group of Atlanta French Translators that you were asked to give without any preparation.  In this situation, you will likely follow a natural pattern.

As the translators assigned to this develop the presentation for the client, you must be prepared to use a general outline and customize it for what you understand about the target audience.  Some things to take into account when developing your format is how the audience respond to different findings and recommendations.  When thinking about this, you need to consider how you will counter their objections.  Likewise, if the audience accepts your findings then there is no need to waste time on trying to persuade them further.

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Deciphering, Accepting And Storing Messages

In the previous blog entry, listening was defined as a complex and selective process of receiving, focusing, deciphering, accepting, and storing what we hear. In that entry we described the focusing and receiving processes.  In this section, we discuss the deciphering, accepting and storing processes.

Deciphering refers to the decoding and assigning of meaning to specific stimuli. The mother responding to her crying child tries to decipher why her baby is crying. The bird watcher deciphers the bird’s call to learn the bird’s habits. But as Indianapolis Translation workers suggest, even with effort, deciphering isn’t always possible. The mother may not identify the reason for her child’s crying. The bird watcher may not interpret the bird’s actions. Similarly, if you don’t understand another person’s language, no matter how clearly you receive and focus on the message, you will not decipher it.

Deciphering also becomes difficult when two people assign different meanings to the same stimulus. Even a machine as clearly defined as a computer can cause problems. For some business people, “computer” suggests a time-saving addition to their office. But others hearing the word might feel threatened, believing they might lose their jobs to the computer. The decoding process has yielded opposing meanings.

To accept is to interpret the message as the speaker intended it. We don’t have to agree with the message, but we should interpret it accurately. For instance, Portland Translation workers suggest that biases or emotional blocks can cause message distortion. We either reject the message or filter it through our own view. That’s why debates on politics, religion, or matters of taste rarely are resolved. We don’t accept. We censor and select only what we want to hear, rather than listening to the whole message.

Storing means placing the deciphered and accepted message in our memories for later recall. Many Seattle Translation workers believe that because upbringing and culture are important to listening and learning, memory also plays a significant role in what we decide to focus on and how we decipher it.

In sum, listening doesn’t occur unless we integrate five distinct and often instantaneous processes: receiving, focusing, deciphering, accepting, and storing.

Routine Claims and Adjustments

Claim letters request adjustments for such things as defective or damaged merchandise, inadequate or inappropriate service, or any grievance concerning goods or services. Adjustment letters are responses to those claims.

Writing Claim Letters

A Spanish translator in Indianapolis suggests that claim letters fall into two groups: routine claims and persuasive claims. Routine claims follow the direct plan since the claim is typically backed by a contract, warranty, guarantee, or the company’s reputation for fair and honest treatment of customers. Persuasive claims aren’t as clear-cut. You have to persuade the company of your claim’s merits before you request a specific action such as a refund, exchange, or credit.

When making a routine claim, many Houston translation services companies suggest that translators follow the direct plan. State your request or problem in the first sentence, then explain. Close courteously, repeating the action desired. Thanking the company in advance is presumptuous and unnecessary. If the claim is valid, a reputable firm will honor it. If you wish, once the firm has resolved the claim, you can write a thank-you note.

Keep your tone courteous and reasonable. Understandably, you might be angry or frustrated with, say, a defective product, but insulting or berating a reader is offensive. Since no one appreciates being insulted, your reader could retaliate by ignoring your claim. It’s far less important to express your dissatisfaction than to achieve results: a refund, a replacement, improved service, better business relations, or an apology. But don’t make your tone apologetic or meek either. Explain objectively, yet firmly, why you’re dissatisfied and stipulate whatever reasonable action the firm must take to satisfy you.

Lastly, when pressing a claim, some companies offering Japanese translation in Chicago have explained the problem and give enough details so the reader clearly understands the basis for your claim. For instance, it is better to say that the alarm clock you bought gains an hour a day than to say it’s defective. Identify the faulty item clearly, giving serial and model numbers. Then propose what you consider a fair adjustment, phrasing your statement so your reader will honor your claim.

In the following letter, the writer assumes that the firm will honor his claim, so he doesn’t ask whether it will. Rather, he works from his assumption and asks directly how to return his skis for repair. Note that the writer uses an attention line to direct his claim to the right department (he doesn’t know the name of the person responsible for making adjustments, and he wants to avoid an awkward salutation such as Dear Sirs, Gentlemen, or Dear Ladies and Gentlemen. The subject line and its reemphasis in the first sentence make clear the nature of the claim. Although the letter is a routine claim, the time span is worth noting; sixteen years separate the purchase from the claim, which is based on a lifetime guarantee.


Paragraphs can be constructed in numerous ways, five of the most common being illustration, comparison or contrast, discussion of cause and effect, classification, and discussion of problem and solution. As a professional Spanish Translator in Washington D.C., your choice of approach should depend on your subject, the intended audience, and the purpose of the message. Remember also that in actual practice, you will often combine two or more methods of development in a single paragraph. You might begin with illustration, shift to cause and effect, and then shift again to problem and solution.

Before a Spanish translator in Indianapolis settles for the first approach that comes to mind, he or she usually thinks about the alternatives. Think through various paragraph development methods before writing them on paper. Also, strive to avoid repeating the same stale paragraph structure over and over again, or your writing will seem very uninteresting.

By illustration

When an Italian translator in New York City develops a paragraph by illustration, he or she gives examples that demonstrate the general idea:

Some of our most popular products are available through local distributors. For example, Everett & Lemmings carries our frozen soup and entree. The J.B. Green Company carries our complete line of seasonings, as well as the frozen soups. A third major distributor, Wilmont Foods, has just begun to carry our new line of frozen desserts.

By comparison or contrast

Similarities or differences between thoughts often provide a strong basis for paragraph development. Here’s an example developed by contrast:

In previous years, when the company was small, the recruiting function could be handled informally. The need for new employees was limited, and each manager could comfortably screen and hire her or his own staff. Today, however, Gambit Products must undertake a major recruiting effort. Our successful bid on the Owens contract means that we will need to double our labor force over the next six months. To hire that many people without disrupting our ongoing activities, we need to create a separate recruiting group within the personnel department.

Project Your Company’s Image In Your Message

Even though creating the proper tone for your market is your primary objective, it’s essential to project the appropriate image for your company.  Any time you correspond with people external to your company, on the most generic subject, you become the representative of your company. An experienced NYC Italian translator recognizes that the perception that you leave on the audience can improve or harm the standing of the whole business. Therefore your personal opinions and character should, at a minimum, be lower than that of the business you represent.

You can make the best use of time and reduce frustration by becoming familiar with the company style at the outset of your employment. Considering the average company, approximately 88-percent of the messages, memos, and studies aren’t authored by the top level directors who endorse them. Generally, professionals turn down initial drafts of such items due to stylistic factors. The truth is, the typical draft undergoes multiple modifications prior to it being accepted.

Chances are you’ll wonder if this hard work to adjust the appearance of a message is really justified. Truth be told, business leaders are very concerned about expressing exactly the correct information in most accurate was possible. According to a Miami Chinese translator The determination of business decision makers to review the exact same document several times proves precisely how essential style happens to be.

Within a well-structured message, everything is connected to a straightforward subject and objective, the concepts are introduced in a systematic arrangement, and everything necessary is incorporated. Smart organization is essential given that it makes the message stronger and eases the communicator’s task. Coordinating a message involves grouping thoughts and choosing the sequence they appear within the presentation. The two fundamental business methods are direct and indirect. Using the direct method, the key thought comes first; with the indirect method, the principle thought shows up later. The indirect method is perfect for individuals who are prone to respond with doubt, disbelief or anger to the message.  The direct method is ideal in nearly all other situations.

Once you communicate, you build a connection with the target audience. The results of the connection relies upon the tone, or all round perception, you generate. One Indianapolis Chinese Translator suggests that communicators should think of themselfs as professional and likable; attempt to evaluate the subject matter from the perspective of the audience. Accentuate constructive thoughts. Communicate your authority, and be respectful. Don’t forget, you characterize your business and need to adapt your design to represent its principles.

The Objectives of Business Communications

It’s imperative for today’s professional translation workers to be aware of the three objectives common in business communication: educating, convincing, and working together with the target readers. Furthermore, each communication needs to achieve a particular goal. To construct this objective, each Indianapolis translation services worker at The Marketing Analysts asks, “What task must the target readers perform or consider when reading my client’s message?” Each Seattle Translation worker is urged to be as specific as they can when documenting the objective, and pinpointing the people in the audience who need to reply. The following are a few examples:

General Objective
To explain
To convince
To work together

Specific Objective
To summarize key findings in the figures from last month’s return good authorization report to the vice president of International Sales
To persuade the General Manager of Taiwanese Operations to hire more merchandisers
To assist the Human Resources department in creating a management development program

Occasionally clients will ask James Dinkins, an Atlanta Translation worker to achieve numerous associated issues with just one message. For instance, one client recently requested him to attempt to elevate his job while offering unbiased details pertaining to a company issue.  In another example, the client asked him to persuade the target readers to authorize two decisions. Whenever you are confronting dual objectives, think about whether or not they are well matched. Can and should both objectives be attained using the same message? Regardless of whether one message can support numerous objectives, you should assess how those objectives are associated and attempt to establish precedence. Give attention to the most important one, particularly if time or space is restricted. And if one of the objectives is personal, emphasize the business objective.

The Role of Social and Cultural Characteristcs in Communication

When the receiving or targeted audience has social and cultural characteristics that are very different from the speaker’s, interaction gets to be more challenging. As an example, as Wal-Mart entered into Mexico and other Central American countries, executives discovered that regional personnel and customers had backgrounds and communication requirements that were different from those of citizens in North America.

Age, schooling, sex, social status, income, race, attitude, wellbeing, attractiveness, reputation, religious beliefs, politics and mannerisms can all divided one individual from another individuals and add complexity to the message, making it difficult to comprehend. In later blog entries, Chicago French Translation workers will show how common or shared knowledge helps ensure mutual understanding and shared reasoning.  With few shared experiences, there tends to be greater misunderstandings than when there are many shared experiences between the sender and receiver.

Deciphering communication to grasp the thoughts and emotions it contans is a sophisticated procedure. Professors of Linguistics are the French Translation Indianapolis Institute suggest that the  capacity to digest information and facts relies on our previous actions and memories, and as time passes, people construct a specific opinion of life. Once we acquire new knowledge and are exposed to new situations, we attempt to merge it into our established routine. However, if thenew information and facts don’t really match, we are likely to shape and contour it instead of altering the structure, or we become more conscious of certain ideas as opposed to others. For that reason, when we converse with individuals who hold comparable experiences and expectations, much of what we say immediately fits into their intellectual composition. However, if we come across individuals with diverse backgrounds, what we say may be interpreted from an entirely different viewpoint. Communicating with someone from another country is probably the most extreme example of how background may impede communication, and later blog entries detail the problems and opportunities of intercultural communication.

The Characteristics Of Body Language

Despite the fact that unspoken interaction is capable of conveying thoughts, it regularly functions in conjunction with verbal communication. According to professionals of  Italian Translation in New York City, in most instances, verbal expression only conveys a portion of a meaning, and body language coveys the remainder. Collectively, these methods of communication create an effective tool, enhancing, strengthening, and clarifying one another.

Body language specialists suggest that non-verbal communication has six particular characteristics:

• To supply details, either purposely or instinctively
• To manage the stream of discussion
• To convey feelings
• To approve, enhance, oppose, or strengthen verbal communication
• To manage or have an impact on people
• To expedite certain duties, including teaching people how to tread water

Body language is important in business too. For instance, French Translation in Chicago experts find that it contributes greatly in establishing trustworthiness and management possibilities. If you’re able to figure out how to control the sensation that you create with your gestures, movements, vocal pitch and tone, and look, you can do a great deal to communicate that you are qualified, honest, and powerful. As an example, Wal-Mart founder Sam Walton created a small-town mannerism that made individuals feel comfortable, thus encouraging them to be more open.

Additionally, experts offering Certified Translation in Indianapolis have found that if you’re able to learn how to interpret the body language of other people, it is possible to understand their underlying issues, core behaviors and intentions more correctly. When coping with partners, clients, and suppliers, pay close attention to tiny indicators that expose the way the discussion is being interpreted. When you feel that you aren’t getting the desired results, examine and review what you are saying; then, if your words seem fine, analyze the unspoken meanings you are sending. Simultaneously, be alert to the unspoken indications that others might be sending.

Requests For Payment (Collection Letters): Part II

Four: Pride
Pride appeals must be tactful.  Otherwise, you chance alienating the debtor.  Often translators from The Marketing Analysts Translation Company often explain to their clients that when used effectively, appeals to pride stress such things as pride in having a good credit rating, pride in ownership of the product, or pride in a good reputation.  Therefore, the translators encourage their clients that when using this appeal, that one should never attack or challenge the person’s pride.  Instead, be subtle; encourage the debtor to take prideful action.

For three years, you’ve been one of our best customers.  We always could count on your prompt payments.  Why not pay your past due balances today, so you can continue to enjoy that fine credit rating?

Five: Self-Interest
Self-interest is more forceful than the previous appeals.  Therefore, translators in several Atlanta Translation Services companies recommend that clients stress the economic advantage of having—and keeping—a good credit rating.  This appeal is often used with industrial and business accounts, since failure to pay overdue accounts may cause loss of credit privileges.

Once a firm loses its credit, Mr. Hall, it becomes increasingly difficult to do business.  Since you worked so hard to establish a good rating, isn’t it in your best interest to pay your overdue balance of $1,232.96 at once?

Six: Fear
Fear is used as an appeal in the final stages of the collection series.  Unlike the previous appeals, Indianapolis Translation Services explain how fear stresses negatives: having the account turned over to a collection agency, being sued, being reported to the credit bureau, or having the goods repossessed.

Choose whichever option is best for you.  Mr. Feldman, but you must act now if you wish to avoid the loss of credit and the expense of litigation.

Legal Limits of Collection Appeals

The preceding appeals are legal.  Every business has the right to collect its bills; but certain appeals and practices are illegal.  As a collector, you cannot threaten debtors with bodily injury.  Nor can you threaten to destroy their credit or reputation by reporting them to employers, associates, relatives, or friends.  You do have the right, though, to report the facts about their credit history to agencies and individuals entitled to such information.

Seek Clarity Of Purpose In Your Translated Works

Communication and translation for international business thrives on efficiency and clarity of purpose. Pompous, inflated prose is inefficient and often confuses your purpose. When working for a Houston Portuguese Translation company, don’t try to impress people with a big vocabulary. Use language that everyone can understand.

Among novice Indianapolis Spanish Translation workers, problems with inflated diction, pompous prose and flabby expressions aren’t unique to the twentieth century. Such problems have a long history. Aristotle stresses “a good style is first of all clear. The proof is that language which does not convey a clear meaning fails to perform the very function of language.” Aristotle’s common sense, unfortunately, has often been ignored in favor of affected, artificial language.

By the twentieth century, some writing had become so obscure that many of the brightest people of the time denounced verbal excesses. Francis Bacon, for instance, condemned obscure communication as “the first disease of learning”. John Locke, in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, argued that language has three ends that include:

1. To convey ideas or beliefs to someone else
2. To convey these ideas or beliefs with as much simplicity and speed as feasible
3. To communicate the language of items: “Language is either misused or lacking in the event it neglects one of these three.”

In short, for roughly the past 2400 years, scholars and rhetoricians and Atlanta French Translation workers have stressed the need for clear communications.  The difference between clear and obscure language can be compared to the difference between backpacking and camping in a luxury camper. A backpacker carries everything that’s necessary; as backpackers know; you can be comfortable and see so much more. With a luxury camper, you carry so many unnecessary items that it takes two days to pack-and two days to unpack. You’re stuck in a crowded campground and so weighed down with gadgets (from lawn chairs to televisions and mountain bikes) that moving to a campsite 100 feet away become a major task. You never get to see the sunset from your own private mountain lake or hear the loons calling to one another.