World Development in the Light of Gunder Frank’s Theory

Andre Gunder Frank wrote Development of Under-developmentwhich was a milestone in the study of sociology and world economy. He argues that all nation-states are bound to progress and develop and those nations which do not develop are handicapped due to outside factors which stunt their process of development. So it is established that all nations have the potential to develop under the right circumstances. How can the imperialist philosophy give way to an environment of mutual acceptance, peace, love and harmony? We will try to find an answer to this question in this article. Acceptance comes with empathy, and empathy comes from communication and understanding. And when inter-cultural communication takes place, we need translators to provide translation services. Gunder Frank and dependentistas were opposed by the dualists who thought that development of a nation solely depends on its own abilities. They thought that a nation’s underdevelopment might be due to lack of progress, communication or traditional feudal practices.  According to them it was observed in the later developing societies, that the industrial zone co-existed with a traditionally backward society. But dependentistas thought that these industrial zones were parasitical and hindering the development of the backward zones. Whichever is the case, the developed nations can step forward and play their role in creating a globally developed world. For this purpose we need lots of German translators, Portuguese translators, Arabic translators, Vietnamese translators, Korean translators, Hindi and Urdu translators. As things are, most of the research in the present world is done by western countries in the field of economics, international politics, technology and literature. By making it available for people of the under-developed countries, we can take a step forward towards globally modernizing the world. Translating this knowledge in other languages can help in transferring all this research to the impoverished societies.

One may ask, what is the need of a globally modernized world? Or why is world development necessary?  Our world has become a global village and what happens in one part of the world affects people living in other parts of the world too. Nations cannot live in isolation nor can they hope to benefit by thriving on the resources of other countries for a long time. Even the imperialist powers of the world have come to realize that depriving the under-developed countries from their right to develop will prove to be a hindrance in their own development. According to Gunder, countries might be undeveloped but no country is under-developed. A small example will clarify this point. There are oil and gas reserves which have been found in many African under-developed countries like Nigeria, Chad, Sudan, Tunisia, Egypt etc. These resources were not being utilized until the foreign investors came and built the infrastructure required to extract these resources. And the developed countries are benefiting from these resources too, as they are the main export partners of the African countries. This petroleum industry in Africa has created job opportunities for the local people and its a forward step in World development. Not to mention the need for French translation, Spanish translation and Portuguese translation service companies. The African oil producing countries are a gold mine for translators.

Andre Gunder Frank also gives some solutions to the Third World countries to pace up with the developed nations. He thinks that there should be a positive change in the relationships of the third world countries with the imperialist powers. He also thinks that an internal change is necessary to loosen the hold of elites on the resources of the impoverished countries. A transformation in the  ruling class of these countries is vital for their progress.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Teams

Contemporary research workers in the field of organizational behavior believe that successful teams can largely improve productivity, increase employee involvement, foster creativity, and even provide for better job security. And yet, although teams can play a vital role in helping an organization reach its goals, the professionals from a Chinese translation agency in California remind us, that they are not the “ultimate” solution, for they might not be appropriate for a given situation. Moreover, even when they are appropriate, the particular organization needs to weigh both the pros and cons for using a team-based approach. It is true that a successful team can provide a number of advantages: pooling the experience of several individuals often results in increased information and knowledge and thus better decisions made. In addition, team members can bring a variety of perspectives to the decision-making process. However, as the Spanish translation workers also remind us, the multiple perspectives can hamper the joint efforts unless they are guided by and centered on a shared goal.

Another advantage of team work is that it often improves the likelihood that employees will embrace a solution because they developed it. In addition, since the members of the team have a greater likelihood of embracing the solution that they developed, they will likely try harder to encourage other workers to accept it.

Working in teams can foster creativity and unleash new levels of energy in employees who share a sense of purpose and mutual accountability. According to Milwaukee German Translation Service professionals, effective teams can perform better than individuals at solving complex problems. Finally, since individuals are social beings who need to belong to a group, teams fill this individual worker’s need. Working in a team also reduces boredom at the workplace, increases the feelings of self-worth and dignity, as well as lowers stress, anxiety and tension between workers.

By Margarita Mihaylova

How Respected Translators Make Ethical Communication Choices

Ethics refers to recommended standards of conduct that prescribe behavior within a society. Put another way, ethical principles define what is right, good or proper. The experts from a TMA Certified Diploma Translation Agency define ethics as “to be aware of what is the right thing to do.” As a business communicator, you have the responsibility to decide not only what you need to say, but also the consequences of saying it.

Ethical behavior is a concern and duty of every organization. However, whatever an organization does, has an impact on its natural and social environment. For this reason, communication efforts are subjected to strict scrutiny from the company’s stakeholders: legislators, investors, consumer groups, the local community, labor organizations, and all other parties that can be affected by the activities of the organization.

The aforementioned Milwaukee Spanish translation workers believe that ethical communication avoids withholding crucial information, conveys the point without offending the audience and passes true and accurate information.  In contrast, unethical communication purposefully distorts the truth or manipulate audiences in a variety of ways: by omitting essential information, misrepresenting numbers (unethical manipulation of statistics and other data), distorting visuals (making a product look bigger or changing the scale of graphs), failing to respect privacy, confidentiality or information security needs.
As the experts from a San Jose Translation Services company remind, unethical communication is not always obvious and overt. Moreover, deciding what is ethical can be a considerable challenge in some business situations. In some cases, ethical choices are clear, but in others, the right path is not always easy to identify. True ethical communication is based on perception – if a person or a group of people interpret some actions or words to be discriminatory or offensive, whatever the intention of the communicator is, the communication may be considered unethical.

Information Overload

Scientists nowadays are concerned that misuse or overuse of communication technology can lead to information overload. The term “information overload” (also known as “infobesity”) was first introduced by Berthram Gross in his book “The Managing of Organizations” (1964) but it was in fact popularized by Alvin Tofler in his best-seller “Future Sock” (1970).

Decision makers have a given, fairly limited, processing capacity so if they receive more information than they can effectively process, it is likely to experience difficulty in discriminating between the useful and the useless information, in understanding an issue or making a decision. This will inevitably result in reduced quality of decision making, lower productivity, and often in high levels of employee stress both on the job and at home.

Even though there is not a real solution how to stop information overload, the professionals from a San Jose Certified Translation Services  mention a few things that can be done to possibly reduce it.

As a recipient, you often have some level of control over the number and types of messages you receive. For example, most e-mail systems usually offer good filtering and tagging options that can automatically sort incoming messages based on preset criteria. So using this feature you can isolate high-priority messages that deserve your attention and disregard or spend less time on the information that is not important. Another advice, added by the professionals from a Miami German Translation Services is, to spend less time on interrupting devices such as smartphones or tablets and to be wary of subscribing to too many blog feeds, Twitter follows, and other sources of recurring messages.

It is bad to undercommunicate nowadays, but sending unnecessary messages or sending a message to the wrong people is almost as bad. As a sender, you can help reduce information overload by making sure you don’t send unnecessary messages. Moreover, if you send messages that are not urgent or crucial, it is good to let people know this, to give them the option to prioritize. Moreover, since most communication systems let you mark messages as urgent, the advice of the Marketing Analysts French Translation Services in Washington D.C.  is to use this feature only when it is truly needed. Sending too many messages marked as “urgent” that do not really need immediate attention and actions, will lead to annoyance and anxiety.

In conclusion, we may say that information overload is an increasing problem nowadays, and that those that learn how to deal with it effectively will have a major advantage in the next few years.


The Finished Report Depends On A Good Outline

You might outline before or after writing a first draft. In any case, the finished report depends on a good outline. Here is one outline that a San Jose Russian translation services specialist provided that can be adapted to most analytical reports:


A. Definition, Explanation, and Background of the Research Question or Problem

B. Intentions of the Report and the Target Audience

C. Sources of Material

D. Glossary of terms

E. Limits of the Research

F. Scope of the Research including subject matter listed in order of importance



A. Primary Issue Researched

l. Description and Explanation

2. Discoveries and Outcomes

3. Appraisal and summary of the collected data

4. Explanation and Analysis of findings


B. Next Issue Researched

l. First Subtopic

a. Description and Explanation

b. Discoveries and Outcomes

c. Appraisal and summary of the collected data

d. Explanation and Analysis of findings

2. Another subtopic



A. Summary of Findings

B. Complete Explanation of Findings

C. Recommendations and Proposals (as needed)

This outline is only tentative. Modify it if necessary

Context and Purpose: Inescapable Determiners of Good Writing and Translation

In 21st-century global communication, the expectations of the audience are high–too high to be ignored or lightly disregarded.  Clearly then, attention to context and purpose does shape the quality and establish the parameters of “good writing.”  Writing can be judged only as it satisfies or fails to satisfy the needs of the intended audience while also achieving the writer’s goals.  Thus both context and purpose are essential elements: the writing must provide what the reader needs and expects as to subject matter, information provided, format, and style. At the same time it must also achieve the writer’s purpose.

Just as important, however, it should also be clear, correct, and efficient–easy to read, easy to understand, easy to locate whatever the reader wants, appealing to the eye, and, above all, accurate.  Thus, as one San Diego translator states, it must be organized logically, have sections and visuals labeled accurately and clearly, contain no errors of language use of content matter.  It must not waste the reader’s time and patience with excess words, cloudy ideas, and illogical sequence.  It must respect the reader’s integrity, knowledge, interests, and time.

For San Francisco translation services workers, the task may appear formidable, for they must know their own language and its standard conventions, as well as the subject matter they address.  They must respect the power of well-chosen words and the appeal of well-crafted phrases.  They must honor language itself as the means to create perceptions with power to ennoble or to destroy. They must understand that whatever the text, it represents in tangible form the organization and the individual writer that create it.  It shows how the organization regards its customers, clients, or associates.  It warrants careful, thoughtful crafting that anticipates readers’ reactions, weighs words wisely for their logical and psychological effect, and exercises judicious selection of content.

Regardless of your translation needs, The Marketing Analysts Translation Services Company is ready to assist you.  Call us today to learn more about our services and expertise.

More Questions That Translators Use To Analyze Their Audiences

In the previous blog post, a professional provider of document translation in San Jose offered a number of questions that an audience might ask during a written or oral presentation. These questions are important for both the translator and his or her client to consider. In this blog post, several additional questions are offered.

How does it function? Alexandre Dubois, a respected French Translator in Philadelphia suggests that an uncomplicated illustration can assist the audience. Nearly everyone thinks better in tangible terms. Provide examples and drawings.

How is the process completed? What makes it better to do the process the way you recommend? This question was provided by a team of linguists offering Spanish translation in Saint Louis translation. These translators recommend that presenters supply straightforward directions to complete the task. If your audience still believes their way is better than the method you support, be prepared to prove the merits of your approach. Audiences can be aggressive to new approaches for carrying out tasks and may try to reject them. While audiences typically aren’t against innovation, they must frequently be convinced that new ways are better.

Explain to your audience the benefits of change and convince them why they need to embrace it. Many people will resist new ideas, particularly if they believe they will need to alter their approaches to performing as task or thinking about something. It is unlikely that your ideas will be instantly accepted.

What is the definition for a particular word or phrase? Always offer a definition to guarantee that your audience recognizes what you are trying to express. Without doing so, a portion of the audience may become confused because they interpret your words and statements differently from the way you intended them.

How is one thought related to another? Your presentation should flow smoothly. Never make the audience rewind, pause and fast forward through your presentation to follow your chain of thought. All presentations should follow a logical framework that allows your audience to follow your thoughts as easily as possible.

Since I realize what you are saying, how would you like me to react? Ensure all final thoughts and implications are clearly addressed.

Finally, never forget the 6 most important questions that include: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Answering these questions will help simplify your suggestions.

The Information Revolution

Most people are repeatedly reminded that the industrial revolution is dead, displaced by computers, mobile electronics, the internet and the information revolution. That opinion is reinforced by eye-raising figures. In I980, Dallas translation services workers found that standard production made up less than twenty-five percent of the U.S. gross national product; white-collar service industries made up the remainder. Between I982 and I987, those white-collar workers took home more than $5 trillion in salaries-essentially for producing, interpreting, controlling, or distributing information and facts. By I990, nearly all U.S. busnesses were dependent on computers.

Powered by a billion-dollar computer electronics and software industry, the information revolution is substantially improving job efficiency. Apart from having the capability to produce, interpret, respond to, and distribute information and facts more quickly, a Chinese translator in San Jose has found that modern day executives can generate much more knowledgeable conclusions and supply far better service simply because they can get and act on information quickly. As little as a decade ago, Company X might have needed at least two or three weeks to propose and deliver a bid for its product or service. Now that same company can get the latest prices right away, draw up a proposal, calculate various costs by feeding information into a software program designed specifically for that purpose (i.e., an electronic spread sheet), revise the bid proposal, then print and mail it electronically – all within two or three days.

In addition to changing the way businesses function, the information revolution has had an enormous impact on the world at large. Portland translators have found that we’ve become information addicts. Cooks use computers to file and find their recipes quickly and to place orders for supplies. Birdwatchers use them to record and inform others of their sightings.  Children use them for games and homework. Our cars speak to us, advising us that we’re low on gas or reminding us to turn off the lights. These are just a few examples of how computers enable us to process information rapidly.

Responding To Inquiries For Information And Action

All requests are essential to the client or potential client requesting information, whether or not the person works for the company or is an outsider. As one German translator in Seattle suggests, “The client’s view regarding your business and its products, your division, and your co-workers are based on how quickly, professionally, and extensively their inquiry is treated.” As an international business person with customer contact, you must be sensitive to the wording and terminology used in your messages.

Of course, responding to an inquiry isn’t as simple as it seems. At times, the details will not be readily available, and choices regarding a proper course of action sometimes need to be made at a higher level. A German translator in San Jose with The Marketing Analysts Translation company indicates that since a message written on letterhead or contained in an e-mail message is legally binding, you need to craft your message properly.

Thankfully, most inquiries are the same or very similar. As an illustration, a staffing and training manager receives many questions pertaining to open positions. Businesses typically create canned replies to deal with popular requests such as these. Despite the fact that canned replies tend to be criticized for coming across as frigid and impersonal, a lot of time and consideration is frequently involved in writing them, and mail merge capabilities allow a certain degree of personalization. One Spanish translator in Denver has suggested that an automated response that is well planned might just come across as being more personal and genuine compared to a rapidly typed, individual response.

Whenever a possible purchase is concerned
Potential clients frequently ask for an annual report, website address, catalog, swatch of material, or some other form of sample to assist them in making a decision about a product seen in advertising. A courteous and useful reply might influence someone to make a purchase. If the client hasn’t asked for any product details and isn’t seeking a response, you could employ some marketing and sales strategies. However, in sales literature that the client has specifically requested, you may use the direct plan.

When replying to inquiries regarding a potential sale, you have three primary objectives: (1) to reply to the request and answer every question, (2) to motivate the client to make a future purchase, and (3) to create a good impression of you and your firm in the mind of the prospective client.

Creating Intelligible Paragraphs

To most experienced suppliers of Chinese translation in San Jose, a paragraph is a group of sentences all associated with the overall subject matter. It is really a component of thought. A collection of paragraphs represents a complete writing, letter, article or report. An individual paragraph is an essential component of the writing and an integral connection in the path of thinking. When you edit a written composition, consider the paragraphs and their connection to each other.

Components of the Paragraph
While paragraphs differ extensively in size and style, the standard paragraph is made up of three standard components: a topic sentence, relevant sentences that establish the subject matter, and transitional phrases and words.

Topic sentence
All appropriately constructed paragraphs are unified: They address an individual topic. The sentence that presents the topic is termed the topic sentence. As explained by a Dallas translator with The Marketing Analysts Translation Company,  informal and creative composition, the topic sentence is often implied as opposed to stated. However in professional writing, the topic sentence is frequently expressed outright and is frequently the initial sentence in the paragraph. The topic sentence offers the audience an overview of the primary thought that will be addressed in the remainder of the paragraph. Observe in the subsequent samples the way the topic sentence presents the subject and indicates the way it will be created:

The consumer services unit of General Instruments has been struggling for several years with customer satisfaction issues. (The remainder of the article will be devoted to explaining the customer satisfaction problems to the audience.)

Moving the call center in Miami has two major down sides. (In the next several sentences the audience will read about the downsides.)

In order to receive a refund, you have to present us with several types of additional information. (The audience will read about each piece of information that they are required to provide.)