World Development in the Light of Gunder Frank’s Theory

Andre Gunder Frank wrote Development of Under-developmentwhich was a milestone in the study of sociology and world economy. He argues that all nation-states are bound to progress and develop and those nations which do not develop are handicapped due to outside factors which stunt their process of development. So it is established that all nations have the potential to develop under the right circumstances. How can the imperialist philosophy give way to an environment of mutual acceptance, peace, love and harmony? We will try to find an answer to this question in this article. Acceptance comes with empathy, and empathy comes from communication and understanding. And when inter-cultural communication takes place, we need translators to provide translation services. Gunder Frank and dependentistas were opposed by the dualists who thought that development of a nation solely depends on its own abilities. They thought that a nation’s underdevelopment might be due to lack of progress, communication or traditional feudal practices.  According to them it was observed in the later developing societies, that the industrial zone co-existed with a traditionally backward society. But dependentistas thought that these industrial zones were parasitical and hindering the development of the backward zones. Whichever is the case, the developed nations can step forward and play their role in creating a globally developed world. For this purpose we need lots of German translators, Portuguese translators, Arabic translators, Vietnamese translators, Korean translators, Hindi and Urdu translators. As things are, most of the research in the present world is done by western countries in the field of economics, international politics, technology and literature. By making it available for people of the under-developed countries, we can take a step forward towards globally modernizing the world. Translating this knowledge in other languages can help in transferring all this research to the impoverished societies.

One may ask, what is the need of a globally modernized world? Or why is world development necessary?  Our world has become a global village and what happens in one part of the world affects people living in other parts of the world too. Nations cannot live in isolation nor can they hope to benefit by thriving on the resources of other countries for a long time. Even the imperialist powers of the world have come to realize that depriving the under-developed countries from their right to develop will prove to be a hindrance in their own development. According to Gunder, countries might be undeveloped but no country is under-developed. A small example will clarify this point. There are oil and gas reserves which have been found in many African under-developed countries like Nigeria, Chad, Sudan, Tunisia, Egypt etc. These resources were not being utilized until the foreign investors came and built the infrastructure required to extract these resources. And the developed countries are benefiting from these resources too, as they are the main export partners of the African countries. This petroleum industry in Africa has created job opportunities for the local people and its a forward step in World development. Not to mention the need for French translation, Spanish translation and Portuguese translation service companies. The African oil producing countries are a gold mine for translators.

Andre Gunder Frank also gives some solutions to the Third World countries to pace up with the developed nations. He thinks that there should be a positive change in the relationships of the third world countries with the imperialist powers. He also thinks that an internal change is necessary to loosen the hold of elites on the resources of the impoverished countries. A transformation in the  ruling class of these countries is vital for their progress.

Effective Cross Functional Teams With Language Translators

As a professional certified translator, you might be tasked with an assignment where you will be working collectively with other professionals to solve a common problem or reach a common goal in a team. The following article discusses some characteristics of teams.

Communications within a cross functional work team symbolize a key aspect of professional communication. A cross functional team consists of individuals who come together with an aim of reaching a common goal.  For instance, it might include purchasing, accounting, marketing and even language translation professionals.  As one Houston Chinese translator explains, cross functional teams are formed in order to identify an effective solution and once a solution is determined and implemented with successful results, the team breaks up. Often the members of these problem solving teams come from a number of business areas, specialties and areas of expertise. The positive aspect of this sort of team is that it brings about a range of viewpoints from people of diverse corporate backgrounds and knowledge. However, the downside can sometimes be that conflicting interests can generate conflicts that require strong skills in professional communication to manage.

Committees are structured teams that tend to exist for an extended period of time and might even become a fixture of the organization. Committees generally have regularly scheduled events such as the meeting of the executive committee and perhaps even elections. Regardless of a team’s objective and responsibility, all members need to have the ability to converse professionally with fellow team members and outsiders. According to several experienced Japanese translation workers in Seattle, this need generally requires more advanced communication skills that include disseminating details and facts with members, being attentive to other members, and composing communications that convey the joint ideas and opinions of the team.

Be Flexible When Planning and Writing Your Research Report

In order to ensure your report meets the objectives that you established from the beginning, it’s important that you adhere to a set of guidelines as you move from planning to writing the formal report.

Remain Flexible

While you are searching and locating sources useful in supporting your research objectives, new findings will lead you in different directions depending on what you find at each step in your investigation process.  Because you will be actively writing, updating and changing your report while investigating new potential sources of information, you will want guidelines to keep you focused on answering your research objective.  The following list is a set of questions that one French translator has compiled to help those working on research projects.  Throughout your project, you should look back and review these questions:

  1. What type of information do I need and why do I need it?
  2. How should I phrase my questions to ensure that right information is collected?
  3. How should I structure my presentation to communicate my process of inquiry and my findings?

As a certified translation worker, you should review these questions regularly during your project and you should be aware that your answers to them may change over time.  At the offset, the first question is answered by the research purpose.  The second question will be phrased in each of your research questions and serve as the blueprint for your report.  The third question will be answered by your outline.  During the research process, a respected Seattle German translation worker suggests that you need allow enough flexibility to allow modifications to your plan in case of unanticipated discoveries.

The following are some examples:

  1. Just as you think your research report is nearly finished, you discover new variables that had not been identified in your statement of purpose.  As a result, you now need to adjust your statement of research purpose to include the new variables.
  2. You decide that certain issues that hadn’t been included in you should now be included or learn that critical information on one of research questions is unavailable. As a result, your research plan needs to be reworked.
  3. While composing your initial draft, you determine that the organization is very poor and needs to be restructured. As a result, you come up with a new outline.

Keep in mind that your finished report will be the summation of many decisions and revisions.  Always remain flexible and be prepared to revise and reshuffle as often as necessary.

Identifying The Problem, Avoiding Bias and Including Accurate Data

Clearly Identified Problem or Question
Fully understand what you’re seeking. If shipment to china that was scheduled to be delivered last Tuesday and it is now Friday, you might want to check if the order ever left the warehouse facility before you call the representative of the shipping company that your firm uses into your office. You should take a logical, step-by-step approach to the development of your report too.

Earlier, a hypothetical employer posed this question: “Will on the job pronounciation and pronunciation language training for our customer service staff in India help reduce compliants among our clients?” The research question obviously requires answers to three other questions: What are the real benefits that companies have reported by instituting on the job pronounciation and pronunciation language training? Are the reports by these companies valid? Will language training offered by Miami German translation companies work in our situation? How pronounciation and pronunciation language training got started, how prevalent is it, who uses it, and other such questions aren’t pertinent to this problem, although some background might be useful in the report’s introduction. As Always, writers and language consultants with French translation services in Houston  recommend that you begin by defining clearly the central questions and thinking through any subordinate questions they may imply. Only then can you determine the data or evidence you need.

Having formalized the core set of questions, the writer of the report can formulate her statement of purpose:
This report examines some of the claims about pronounciation and pronunciation language training benefits made by practitioners of pronounciation and pronunciation language training.
The writer might have mistakenly begun instead with this statement:
This report examines pronounciation and pronunciation language training.

Notice how the first version sharpens the focus by expressing the precise subject: pronounciation and pronunciation language training (a huge topic), but the alleged benefits of pronounciation and pronunciation language training.
As a rule, Seattle German Translation Services suggest that you define the purpose by condensing your approach to a basic question: Does pronounciation and pronunciation language training have therapeutic benefits? or, Why have our sales dropped steadily for three months? Then restate the question as a declarative sentence in your purpose statement.

A Report with No Bias
Interpret evidence impartially. Stay on track by beginning with an unbiased title. Consider these two title versions:
THE ACCURACY OF AUTOMATED TRANSLATION APPLICATIONS IN LAW
AN ANALYSIS OF THE ACCURACY OF AUTOMATED TRANSLATION APPICATIONS IN LAW
The first version suggests the report simply will discuss the the accuracy of automated translation software. Here, the application’s accuracy is a foregone conclusion. In contrast, the second version signals readers that the report will analyze whether the automated translation software is in fact accurate.

Accurate and Adequate Data
Never alter original data by refusing to take into account important opinions and observations. Imagine that you’re asked to recommend the production equipments for a manufacturer. After inviting several manufacturer’s representatives, you stumble upon a cases study:

Of the six manufacturers that you are considering, only two had had client approval ratings above 80%. In addition, the same company had the fastest equipment installation times and lowest cost of maintenance. If you cite these data, present both points, not simply the first. Reserve personal comments or judgments for your conclusion. As space permits, include the full text of interviews or questionnaires in appendices

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Common Analytical Research Problems

Language translators may be asked to become involved in a number of phases of analytical research project.  While most frequently, translation works will only be asked to complete the translation of questionnaires, they could also take on more substantial roles.  In this blog post, we review the types of research problems that you could be trying to solve.

The objective of an analytical report is to reveal the method that you used to reach your conclusions. The method you use is determined by your topic area, your intentions, and your audience’s requirements. Listed below are some common analytical problems:

“Can Method A Be Applied to Solve Problem B?”
Research can be used to solve real world problems. Imagine that you are Seattle translation services and that your client is worried about the results of emotional stress on employees in their distribution facility in Portugal. Your client may ask you to investigate the claim that transcendental meditation has therapeutic benefits-with an eye toward a TM program for employees. You would design your analysis to answer this question: “Does TM have therapeutic benefits?”  The analysis would follow a questions-answers-conclusions structure. Because the report might lead to action, you would probably include recommendations based on your conclusions.

“Is X or Y Better for a Specific Purpose?
Analysis is essential in comparisons of machines, processes, business locations, computer systems, or the like. Assume, for example, you manage a ski lodge and you need to answer this question: Which of the two most popular types of ski binding is best for our rental skis? In a comparative analysis of the Salamon 555 and the Americana bindings, you might assess the strengths and weaknesses of each in a point-by-point comparison: toe release, heel release, ease of adjustment, friction, weight, and cost.

Or you might use an item-by item comparison, discussing all the features of the first binding, and then all the features of the next. The comparative analysis follows a questions-answers-conclusions structure and is designed to help the reader make a choice.

“Why Does X Happen?”
The problem-solving analysis is designed to answer questions like this: Why do New York City translation services businesses have a high failure rate? (See the sample report later in this chapter.) This kind of analysis follows a variation of the questions-answers-conclusions structure: namely, problem-causes-solution.

Such an analysis has the following steps:
l. identifying the problem
2. examining possible and probable causes and isolating definite ones
3. proposing solutions

An analysis of why some executives refuse to have computers at their desks would follow the same structure. Another kind of problem-solving analysis is done to predict an effect:
“What are the consequences of putting production workers on a four-day work week?” Here, the structure is proposed action-probable effects-conclusions and recommendations.

“Is X Practical in a Given Situation?”
The feasibility analysis assesses the practicality of an idea or plan: Will the consumers of Hicksville support a microcomputer store? In a variation of the question-answers-conclusions structure, a feasibility analysis uses reasons for-reasons against, with both sides supported by evidence. Businesses often use this kind of analysis.

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Propper Sentence Structure and Vocabulary In Translating–Why Bother?

Every language has its own organizational patterns that may or may not be altered.  Sometimes to express specific meanings or to signify special meanings, the expected sequence is interrupted.  As explained by Jane Bailey, a Seattle translation services worker, in English the normal pattern is subject, verb, completer(s).  When we vary this sequence, we draw attention to the out-of-place component.  In addition, the most important idea always appears in the main clause, never in a subordinate clause.  These commonplaces of structure signal the writer’s meanings to the reader, as well as instructions for reading and interpreting the text.

And every language has multiple words with the same meanings, but these meanings usually are not the same.  They may express shades of an idea or only one aspect of it, be appropriate only in a specific context, apply only to one thing or idea, suggest a specific connotation, or by their  history and etymology create own tone and associations.  Very few words are truly equal in meaning.

In advertising, inventive playing with varying meanings and associations attracts attention and sells products.  In contrast, in report writing, the word with the precise meaning in the context of the rest of the writing and the work environment is necessary to assure that all readers understand the writer’s message and intent and that all readers interpret the message in the same way.

The Marketing Analysts is a leading provider of immigration and diploma and transcript translation services in the United States.  With our own notary services, we can prepare your documents for all of your overseas travel and immigration needs.

Many Reasons To Avoid Using Pseudo-Technical Language

While the use of technical and specialized terminology in documents and presentations that are geared at audiences who are unfamiliar with the terminology causes problems, it is even worse to use pseudo-technical terms when other terms are just as efficient and widely understood.

According to James Hildebrand, a translators with a Houston translation services company, pseudo-technical language is created by a writer or speaker who needlessly substitutes unfamiliar multisyllable words for good, every day, familiar words.  Corporate language in general is riven with this sort of nonsense, usually termed ‘management-speak’.  One example is the use of the term “above-board” which is used in statements such as, “I don’t think you are being completely above board with me.”  Another term that Human Resources professionals use is “Onboarding”, which they sometimes use to refer to the training that new employees receive.  You might also be familiar with the use of nouns as action verbs such as the term “offices” as used in the following sentence, “Tom offices from home.” What the person is really saying is that Tom works from his house.  This kind of language is difficult for native speakers of English to understand. You can imagine how difficult it is for the people who translate these documents and for nonnative speakers who hear it.

We can all think of someone in our office that is always trying to use this sort of language.  Often it seems like the only reason they use these terms is because they think it makes them look like an intellectual and demeans people.  In addition, people who try to use big and unfamiliar words seldom stop at single words. As a few Seattle German translation workers have learned, many of the people who use pseudo-technical terms will often go on to combine several words to make hard-to-understand and sometimes even meaningless phrases and sentences. Instead of communicating meaning, all they end up doing is producing noise that disrupts communication.

This is why Claudio Garcia of Miami certified translation company suggests that when people have the choice of using these types of terms or a synonym that is more familiar to broad audiences; they should stick with the synonyms that are most commonly used.  Simply put, pseudo-technical language creates communication barriers with people who aren’t up on the latest lingo. It also makes the translation of these terms into other languages difficult.

How Translators Should Use The Power Of Persuasion By Including Facts And Data

As content creators, writers and translators who are trying to include persuasion in our works, it’s important to keep in mind that the people who will be reading the material can be classified into groups.  They include those who have been persuaded, those who can be persuaded and those who cannot be persuaded.  Therefore, Washington D.C. Legal Translation providers suggest that we should be cautious about how we use persuasion to sway the group that can be persuaded and be delicate in how we address those who are already persuaded.  You will never be able to change the mindset of those who cannot be persuaded.  As far as those who are already persuaded, it might be enough to demonstrate why you are a reliable source of information and then make your emotional appeal.  For those who can be persuaded, you need to present proof and data to support your position.

In a commercial sales presentation, one sales representative might state a negative claim against the competition to persuade the key decision makers that the product they offer is inferior.  A Portuguese Miami translator  translator suggests that the back and forth debate might sound something like this:

• Brand X’s product lacks the software scalability to address your needs in six months.

• Brand Y’s product has one of the worst support teams in the world.

• Brand X’s product has a tendency to crash because it is new and hasn’t been adequately field tested.

On the other hand, a positive argument is one that reinforces the person making the claim with encouraging statements.

• The product line we represent has been field tested in thousands of installations.

• With the software that operates on our computers, you can expect efficiency gains of 20%.

It’s likely that there won’t be many members in your audience who will feel that you are trying to deceive them by offering incorrect data. More likely than not, Seattle French translation workers suggest that the facts won’t concern the audience as much as matters they relate to value, importance, and the possible fallout from making a bad decision. The largest part of your presentation should be devoted to clarifying the implications and meanings of the material you presented. In other words, as your audience takes in all of the information that you presented, they will want to know what it all means and why it is important to them.

Internet Resources for Translators and Interpreters

The Internet provides a constantly evolving communication landscape that services as a valuable resource for translation workers. There are certain sites that you prefer to others because they are easier to navigate, read and provide better information in a way you want it. In this blog post, our translators have described some of the ways they make use of the Internet in their work. The Internet will assist you in doing your job and providing details to guide research or you provide details regarding your past projects and current responsibilities. The Internet can also function as a resource for questions that surface throughout the work day. If, for example, you are responsible for coordinating meetings and are tasked with hiring a German translator in San Francisco, you might go to themarketinganalysts.com and request a proposal. If you have a question about your company’s relocation benefits, your company’s Web site might provide a detailed statement . Imagine that your company intends to transfer some personnel to Shanghai, China, and you have been instructed to find cost-of-living information for the area.

Many translation services companies have web sites. If you are a language translator who works as a freelancer, you may have even developed a site to help generate business. If you list your Web address on your resume, companies you are applying to will likely look at the site. Use this to your advantage. The site lets you show your work to others-an electronic portfolio that potential employers can easily access to see your work.

Because your Web site is so public, you need to represent yourself in text and graphics as you would most like to be seen and in a form appropriate for the type of Seattle Spanish translation services that you specialize in providing. Discussing your strengths, your accomplishments, work history, and so on gives the reader an idea of who you are. Be sure to represent yourself as you want to be known.

Making Ethical Decisions in Translation

Michelle Dawson, a French translator in Washington D.C., is employed by a United Nations office that functions to strengthen NGO’s through grants, training programs and a wide range of other programs.  As a translation worker, Michelle’s job is to evaluate grant proposals from various groups that seek funding from the United Nations.  The proposals that she receives and reviews are for new programs that are meant to promote global good.

While proposals are meant to contain factual information and be transparent, sometimes the writers see proposals as a marketing tool that can convey exaggerated promises, silenced risks and huge rewards. As a result, some proposals are almost entirely based on fabricated research results.  One inherent problem becomes obvious when proposals are written to generate funding for additional research and additional funding is recommended in previous research results. Generally speaking, the more successful the previous research has been, the more likely that large donations and grants will be awarded for additional research.

Because Dawson is a noted social scientist and professional translator, she has strong knowledge in conducting research, applying statistics correctly, stating realistic objectives and writing honest and ethical recommendations.  As a translation service provider and research analyst, her job is to evaluate the merit of each proposal.  Her current project involves reviewing and translating the proposals for a project that has a goal of bringing clean drinking water to people in Africa’s most polluted nations.  The first proposal that she reviews and translates from French to English is from a prominent United Nations ambassador and a professor at a Nigerian university.  The ambassador wants to implement a portable water filtration system that he had previously been awarded money to develop.  While independent research from world renowned testing laboratories confirm that his filtration system is completely ineffective, the ambassador attempts to mislead reviewers by including contrived charts from ambiguous and suspicious tests and making unfounded claims.

While reviewing the ambassador’s proposal, Dawson notices that the details contained in the proposal don’t match the findings that findings that he had recorded in the field.  In fact, the ambassador has skewed the data to make his water filtration system look successful.  Upon further review of the ambassador’s records, Dawson determines that the ambassador has underlined findings that make his invention look wonderful and has crossed out findings that detail huge and potentially dangerous flaws.

Dawson must now make an ethical decision in translation and decide if she should confront the ambassador, mention something to her superiors or simply overlook her findings.  By announcing her findings, she could be viewed as a whistle blower and face acts of retribution from everyone in her office.  She might even be forced to quit her job or worse.  Based on the two ethical frameworks that we discussed previously, what would you do?