Parts of A Report

Introduction. The introduction explains and states the problem or condition, and offers background information. Define the target audience and go over your sources of information, in addition to your purpose for not including particular information such as expert opinions and relevant data. Dallas Chinese translation workers recommend  that you state working definitions, except in cases where there are so many that a glossary is required. In case you use a glossary and appendices, refer to them in your introduction. Lastly, establish the scope of your report by detailing the important concepts covered in the body.

Body. The body separates an elaborate issue into connected topics and subtopics, positioned in order of their significance. Break up the subject into its key components and then the key components into into subparts. Several New York French translation workers suggest that authors continue to break up the subject matter in order to simplify it and make sense of the topic. For example, if your major topic is “Common Problems Reported In New Automobiles”, you might break this down into a number of subtopics:  “Engine troubles” and “Non Engine troubles”.  The second subtopic can be divided into a number of sub-subtopics including “broken interior components”, “non-working electrical issues” and perhaps even “after sales service”.  These divisions and subdivisions prevent the author from getting off track and assists readers in following the analysis.  It’s critical that based on your logic and analysis that your audience can draw conclusions that are the same as your own. Good research necessitates the inclusion of all feasible issues and reduces the focus from possible to certain causes. Sort, assess, and decipher information to attain a logical conclusion. The course of action could be outlined like the following:

  1. Define and Assess all Feasible Factors, and Reject the Improbable Ones
  2. Choose the Most Likely Reasons and Assess Them
  3. Determine the specific (or Direct Causes)

Conclusion. The conclusion will likely be in the most interesting section for the majority of readers since it provides answers to the questions that the audience had initially. As a result, many reports these days offer the conclusion just after the introduction and body section.

Here you review, decipher, and suggest. Even though you have evaluated information at every stage of your research, your summary brings everything together in a wider understanding and recommends specific strategies. One Kansas City translation worker recommends that the final section be considered in three ways:

  1. The summary must correctly mirror the body of the report.
  2. The general meaning that you present needs to be congruent with the results reported in the summary.
  3. The suggestion needs to be in line with the research purpose, the proof offered, and the explanation provided.

The summary and explanation needs to be intelligently linked to your suggestions.

A Summary For Translators And Writers Of Proposals

Before concluding this section on proposals, we thought we would provide a summary of the posts that we have made on this subject.  To start, most Washington D.C. translation workers define a proposal as an offer to do something or a suggestion for some action. Among the various types of proposals that can be generated, there are three main types that consist of the planning proposal, the research proposal, and the sales proposal. Among these various types, they can take the form of an internal proposal, an external proposal, a solicited proposal or an unsolicited proposal.

A Houston Portuguese Translation profession explains the differences between the three main types of proposal using the following clarification.  A planning proposal is typically written and translated to address the benefits of following a suggestion for change.  Alternatively, a research proposal tends to explain why a research project would be valuable to an organization.  In doing so, the research proposal must explain why the researcher is qualified to carry out the project and identify the likelihood of its success.  Finally, the sales proposal should be written to explain why your client can do a better job at fulfilling the needs of the customer better than a competitor.  Regardless of the type of proposal, a well written one will answer the necessary questions concerning what, why, how, when, and how much.

To ensure a good proposal, several professional Atlanta translation workers offer the following suggestion:

l. Use the appropriate format and supplements.
2. Be sure that your subject is focused and your purpose worthwhile.
3. Identify all related problems.
4. Offer realistic methods.
5. Provide concrete and specific information.
6. Use visuals whenever possible.
7. Maintain the appropriate level of technicality.
8. Create a tone that connects with your readers.

As you plan to write your proposal, work from a detailed outline that has a distinct introduction, body, and conclusion:

I. In the introduction, answer the what and why and clarify the subject, background, and purpose of your proposal. Establish need and benefits, along with your qualifications. Identify data sources, any limitations of your plan, and its scope.
2. In the body, answer the how, when, and how much. Spell out your plan by enumerating methods, work schedules, materials and equipment, personnel, facilities, costs, expected results, and feasibility.
3. In the conclusion, summarize key points and stimulate action.

Authoring And Translating The Body Of A Proposal

The body section of the proposal will receive the most attention from readers. It should be designed to answers all the following questions that are applicable:

o How will it be done?
o When will it be done?
o What materials, methods, and personnel will it take?
o What facilities are available?
o How long will it take?
o How much will it cost, and why?
o What results can we expect?
o How do we know it will work?
o Who will do it?

Authors or translators should use the body section to spell out the client’s plan in enough detail for readers to evaluate its merit. If this section is vague, many Miami Certified Translation workers believe that your client’s proposal stands no chance of being accepted. Besides being clear, the plan must be realistic and promise no more than you can deliver. The main goal of this section is to prove that the plan is failsafe.

As a translator with The Marketing Analysts Seattle Translation Services explains, “Spell out the problem, to make it absolutely clear to the audience and to show you understand it fully.” As a Chicago French Translation worker, use your resources wisely to explain why the problem should be solved or the project undertaken. Identify any sources of data. In a research or sales proposal, state your qualifications for doing the job. If your plan has limitations, explain them. Finally, define the scope of your plan by enumerating the specific subsections to be discussed in the body section.

If a proposal is unsolicited, a writer or translator must carefully emphasize why the problem is important by making it vivid through details that arouse concern and interest. Consequently, an introduction might be longer than it would be in a solicited proposal, where your intended readers and decision-makers would already agree about the severity of the problem.

The Body And Conclusion of the Global Research Report


The body is the meat of the global research report.  As a French translator at a Raleigh translation services indicated, this is where translators will describe something, analyzing something, or giving instructions, the data in this section support and clarify your statement of purpose, your conclusion, and any recommendations. “Show me” is the implied demand any reader will make of your report. Your body section should deliver a step-by-step view of the process by which you move from introduction to conclusion. Any interpretations or recommendations will be only as credible as the evidence that supports them.

For good practice, Dallas Translation Services workers should name the body section something that reflects the intended purpose of the report. For example, if your report is a physical description of an item, you might title the body section “Description and Function of Parts.” The same section in a set of instructions might be titled “Instructions for Performance,” or “Collected Data” in a report that analyzes a problem or answers a question.


The conclusion of your report shouldn’t provide any new facts. The purpose of the conclusion should be to review and clarify and information contained in the body. A French Translator in New York offers the following subsections that are most often used.  However, one should remember that the subsections can vary depending on the specifics related to your report.  In a report describing an overseas competitor, a conclusion should review and summarize the major parts of the body and briefly describe the purpose of the conclusion.

l. Summary of information in the body. When your discussion is several pages long, summarize it.

2. Comprehensive interpretation of information in the body. Tie your report together with an overall interpretation of data, and conclusions based on facts.

3. Recommendations and proposals based on information in the body. Base recommendations or proposals directly on your conclusions.

Although a good beginning, middle, and ending are indispensable, feel free to modify, expand, or delete any subsections as you see fit.


Begin your research with a general review of your topic. Then move from general to specific. Encyclopedias are a good place to begin, because they contain general information. Or read a book or pamphlet that offers a comprehensive view of your subject before moving to specialized articles in periodicals. Since Lynne’s report  concerns professional communication, she went to such journals as The Journal of Business Communication and The American Business Communication Bulletin for her information.

Document Formatting For Language Translation Workers

This article continuing our discussion on document formatting for translation services workers by discussing ideal sentence lengths, the use of upper case letters, accurate page numbering and the use of proper formulated introduction, body and close.  Because most translation workers are already familiar with these formatting elements, we provide brief overview of each one.

Line Length

Excessively long lines cause eye strain; short lines cause the eye to jump back and forth. A few of our Denver translation services workers suggest that if your margins are set up as discussed above, you will have a 60-character line for larger-print typewriters (known as pica or l 0-pitch) or a 72-character line for the smaller-print typewriters (known as elite or 12-pitch). Word processing equipment usually follows these conventions, even allowing a choice of print sizes. Check the user’s manual. References to characters per inch, or cpi, are the same as pitch; l 0 cpi is l 0-pitch and so on.

Upper Case Letters

Our Cincinnati Translation Services workers suggest that translators avoid overusing upper case letters for highlighting. All caps are hard to read because letter shapes don’t vary much. Since people differentiate among letters by their shapes, lowercase letters, with their distinctive shapes, are easier and therefore faster to read. Besides, as with all highlighting techniques, overuse negates the intended effect.

Consistently Numbered Pages

Count your title page as page “i”, without numbering it, and number all subsequent pages up to and including your table of contents and abstract with small roman numerals (ii, iii, iv, and so on). Use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, and so on) for subsequent pages, numbering the first page of your report proper as page l. Place all page numbers in the upper right corner, two lines below the top edge of the paper and five spaces to the left of the right edge. (Some word processors may limit where the page number can go; check the manual.)

Introduction-Body-Conclusion Structure

Organize your report like any well-structured communication: orientation, discussion, and review.

Section Length

The length of each section depends on your subject and purposes. For instance, a Chicago French Translator suggests that a problem solving report often has a brief introduction outlining the problem. The body may be quite long, explaining the possible and probable causes of the problem. Because the conclusion contains a summary of findings, an overall interpretation of the evidence, and definite recommendations, it will likely be detailed. Only when your investigation uncovers one specific answer or one definite cause will the body section be relatively short. Examples of varying section length, according to subject and purpose, are found in the sample reports throughout this text.