According to the data presented by the Bulgarian Center for Study of Democracy the arable land in the Republic of Bulgaria is 4.1 million ha, 14% of the land is pasture (1.52 million ha) and 35% of is forest (3.87 million ha). Around 2.3 million are used for growing cereals, primarily wheat. The major industrial crops, incl. sunflower and sugar beet, and there are also small areas of cotton and soybeans.
Historically, wheat is the main food crop and about 50 percent of arable land is used for it. Corn, mainly for animal feed, is also extensively cultivated – it takes about 0.5-0.6 million , resulting yields amounted to 4.6 t / ha.
Sunflower oil is a traditional culture. A Bulgarian friend of mine, a worker at a Chinese Translation Houston Services Agency who has been to Bulgaria says, that in Bulgaria there are good conditions for its cultivation. More than 90% of sunflower production in Bulgaria is used to produce oil for the needs of the home market.
Oriental tobacco and its production is concentrated in family farms. In 2011 tobacco production was 17 thousand hectares.
Fruit production is export-oriented sub-sector. The largest relative share have: apples (30% of total production), plums (22%), cherries (15%) and peaches (15%).
Traditionally, the largest in the production of vegetables in Bulgaria is the share of potatoes, peppers, watermelons, tomatoes and cabbage. Another friend of mine, who works for the New York City Japanese Translation Services Agency worker says, that they have very delicious vegetables in Bulgaria. They also grow vegetables in greenhouses, mainly cucumbers and tomatoes, over 90% of which are placed on the European market.
Despite the observed in 2010 and 2011 stabilization in the production of vegetables, the general trend is a reduction in the total area used. Factors limiting the development of the subsector are: lack of funds for consolidation and modernization of production, irrigation problems (poor state of irrigation infrastructure, inadequate irrigation equipment, and high cost of water), population aging in the vegetable growing areas; lack of trade agreements between manufacturers and retailers to place the finished product.