Parts of A Report

Introduction. The introduction explains and states the problem or condition, and offers background information. Define the target audience and go over your sources of information, in addition to your purpose for not including particular information such as expert opinions and relevant data. Dallas Chinese translation workers recommend  that you state working definitions, except in cases where there are so many that a glossary is required. In case you use a glossary and appendices, refer to them in your introduction. Lastly, establish the scope of your report by detailing the important concepts covered in the body.

Body. The body separates an elaborate issue into connected topics and subtopics, positioned in order of their significance. Break up the subject into its key components and then the key components into into subparts. Several New York French translation workers suggest that authors continue to break up the subject matter in order to simplify it and make sense of the topic. For example, if your major topic is “Common Problems Reported In New Automobiles”, you might break this down into a number of subtopics:  “Engine troubles” and “Non Engine troubles”.  The second subtopic can be divided into a number of sub-subtopics including “broken interior components”, “non-working electrical issues” and perhaps even “after sales service”.  These divisions and subdivisions prevent the author from getting off track and assists readers in following the analysis.  It’s critical that based on your logic and analysis that your audience can draw conclusions that are the same as your own. Good research necessitates the inclusion of all feasible issues and reduces the focus from possible to certain causes. Sort, assess, and decipher information to attain a logical conclusion. The course of action could be outlined like the following:

  1. Define and Assess all Feasible Factors, and Reject the Improbable Ones
  2. Choose the Most Likely Reasons and Assess Them
  3. Determine the specific (or Direct Causes)

Conclusion. The conclusion will likely be in the most interesting section for the majority of readers since it provides answers to the questions that the audience had initially. As a result, many reports these days offer the conclusion just after the introduction and body section.

Here you review, decipher, and suggest. Even though you have evaluated information at every stage of your research, your summary brings everything together in a wider understanding and recommends specific strategies. One Kansas City translation worker recommends that the final section be considered in three ways:

  1. The summary must correctly mirror the body of the report.
  2. The general meaning that you present needs to be congruent with the results reported in the summary.
  3. The suggestion needs to be in line with the research purpose, the proof offered, and the explanation provided.

The summary and explanation needs to be intelligently linked to your suggestions.

A Summary For Translators And Writers Of Proposals

Before concluding this section on proposals, we thought we would provide a summary of the posts that we have made on this subject.  To start, most Washington D.C. translation workers define a proposal as an offer to do something or a suggestion for some action. Among the various types of proposals that can be generated, there are three main types that consist of the planning proposal, the research proposal, and the sales proposal. Among these various types, they can take the form of an internal proposal, an external proposal, a solicited proposal or an unsolicited proposal.

A Houston Portuguese Translation profession explains the differences between the three main types of proposal using the following clarification.  A planning proposal is typically written and translated to address the benefits of following a suggestion for change.  Alternatively, a research proposal tends to explain why a research project would be valuable to an organization.  In doing so, the research proposal must explain why the researcher is qualified to carry out the project and identify the likelihood of its success.  Finally, the sales proposal should be written to explain why your client can do a better job at fulfilling the needs of the customer better than a competitor.  Regardless of the type of proposal, a well written one will answer the necessary questions concerning what, why, how, when, and how much.

To ensure a good proposal, several professional Atlanta translation workers offer the following suggestion:

l. Use the appropriate format and supplements.
2. Be sure that your subject is focused and your purpose worthwhile.
3. Identify all related problems.
4. Offer realistic methods.
5. Provide concrete and specific information.
6. Use visuals whenever possible.
7. Maintain the appropriate level of technicality.
8. Create a tone that connects with your readers.

As you plan to write your proposal, work from a detailed outline that has a distinct introduction, body, and conclusion:

I. In the introduction, answer the what and why and clarify the subject, background, and purpose of your proposal. Establish need and benefits, along with your qualifications. Identify data sources, any limitations of your plan, and its scope.
2. In the body, answer the how, when, and how much. Spell out your plan by enumerating methods, work schedules, materials and equipment, personnel, facilities, costs, expected results, and feasibility.
3. In the conclusion, summarize key points and stimulate action.

How To Author and Translate A Winning Proposal

Like all writing projects that are designed to present and explain facts and numbers, proposals have an introduction, body and conclusion. For writers and certified translation workers who are authoring a proposal, the following format is one that is encouraged because it follows a good layout with recommended sections and subsections.

I. Background
A. Objective and Purpose
B. Definition of the Problem
D. Need
E. Qualifications of Personnel
F. Data Sources
G. Limitations
H. Scope

A. Methods
B. Timetable
C. Materials and Equipment
D. Personnel
E. Available Facilities
F. Needed Facilities
G. Cost
H. Expected Results
I. Feasibility

A. Summary of Key Points
B. Request for Action

This outline is intended to be flexible and the subsection headings can be rearranged, combined, divided, or deleted as needed. Although not every proposal contains all subsections, each major section must answer certain reader questions, as illustrated below

Writing And Translating The Introduction

As one Chicago French Translation worker suggests, the introduction should answer all the following questions – or all those that apply to the situation:

o What situation are you trying to prevent or what problem seeking to fix?
o In general, what remedy or idea are you proposing?
o Why are you offering to make changes?
o What are the advantages or positive returns?
o What are your qualifications for this project

Right from the start, your purpose as a Houston Portuguese Translation worker that translates proposals should be to promote your client’s strategy, to persuade the audience that the project must be completed and that your client has the ability to do it. If your introduction is long-winded, evasive, or vague, your audience may ignore it entirely. Therefore, you should make it concise, specific, and clear.

In addition, the author of translator must spell out the problem, to make it absolutely clear to the audience and to show you understand it fully. Explain why the problem should be solved or the project undertaken. Identify any sources of data. In a research or sales proposal, state your qualifications for doing the job. If your plan has limitations, explain them. Finally, define the scope of your plan by enumerating the specific subsections to be discussed in the body section.

Preparing and Translating Proposals that Plan An Improvement

A planning proposal suggests ways to solve a problem or to bring about improvement. Many Washington D.C. Translation Services companies are familiar with writing and translating proposals that take the form of a request for funding to expand the manufacturing output, an architectural plan for new office building on a corporate campus, or a plan to improve leadership training and skills in a major corporation. In every case, the successful planning proposal answers this central question for readers: What are the benefits of following your suggestions? The following planning proposal is external and solicited.

Disappointed with the results of earlier, in-house software development initiatives, a division of Exxon Mobil has contracted a team of software developers to design results-oriented workforce management application. The authors of the proposal worked with a Houston Translation Services company to to persuade decision makers in 3 countries that their plans for software development are likely to be completed faster, more efficiently and produce better results than prior approaches, which were not give enough priority. In their proposal, addressed to the director of the division, the consultants offer concrete and specific solutions to clearly identified problems.

After a brief introduction summarizing the problem, the proposal writers develop their proposal under two major headings (“Assessment of Needs” and “Proposed Plan”) to give the audience a clear forecast of the contents. Under “Proposed Plan,” subheadings offer an even more specific forecast.

The “Limitations” section shows that our plan is careful to promise no more than what will realistically be delivered. At Exxon Mobil, upper management resistance seems to underlie most other problems. Because this ultimate problem apparently has gone unrecognized, the final head, “Related Problems,” is inserted for emphasis.

Because this proposal is external, it can be cast as a certified translation of a letter. Notice, however, that the complimentary closing (“Best wishes”), and word choice (“thanks;” “what we’re doing on our end;” “Michael and Howard,” etc.) create an informal, familiar tone. Such a tone is appropriate in this particular external document because the writers and reader have spent many hours in planning conferences, luncheons, and phone conversations.

Like any document that gains reader acceptance, this one should be the result of careful decisions about content, organization, and style.

Document Formatting For Language Translation Workers

This article continuing our discussion on document formatting for translation services workers by discussing ideal sentence lengths, the use of upper case letters, accurate page numbering and the use of proper formulated introduction, body and close.  Because most translation workers are already familiar with these formatting elements, we provide brief overview of each one.

Line Length

Excessively long lines cause eye strain; short lines cause the eye to jump back and forth. A few of our Denver translation services workers suggest that if your margins are set up as discussed above, you will have a 60-character line for larger-print typewriters (known as pica or l 0-pitch) or a 72-character line for the smaller-print typewriters (known as elite or 12-pitch). Word processing equipment usually follows these conventions, even allowing a choice of print sizes. Check the user’s manual. References to characters per inch, or cpi, are the same as pitch; l 0 cpi is l 0-pitch and so on.

Upper Case Letters

Our Cincinnati Translation Services workers suggest that translators avoid overusing upper case letters for highlighting. All caps are hard to read because letter shapes don’t vary much. Since people differentiate among letters by their shapes, lowercase letters, with their distinctive shapes, are easier and therefore faster to read. Besides, as with all highlighting techniques, overuse negates the intended effect.

Consistently Numbered Pages

Count your title page as page “i”, without numbering it, and number all subsequent pages up to and including your table of contents and abstract with small roman numerals (ii, iii, iv, and so on). Use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, and so on) for subsequent pages, numbering the first page of your report proper as page l. Place all page numbers in the upper right corner, two lines below the top edge of the paper and five spaces to the left of the right edge. (Some word processors may limit where the page number can go; check the manual.)

Introduction-Body-Conclusion Structure

Organize your report like any well-structured communication: orientation, discussion, and review.

Section Length

The length of each section depends on your subject and purposes. For instance, a Chicago French Translator suggests that a problem solving report often has a brief introduction outlining the problem. The body may be quite long, explaining the possible and probable causes of the problem. Because the conclusion contains a summary of findings, an overall interpretation of the evidence, and definite recommendations, it will likely be detailed. Only when your investigation uncovers one specific answer or one definite cause will the body section be relatively short. Examples of varying section length, according to subject and purpose, are found in the sample reports throughout this text.